RURAL TERMS

ALLUVIUM
Transported soils deposited by running water. Usually deep even loams. They are immature soils because of a lack of profile but often very fertile and well drained. May contain silt.

APHID RESISTANT LUCERNE
A new and improved genetic material which has been imported from North America. It has an inherent resistance against known aphid attacks.

AUSTRALIAN BUREAU OF STATISTICS (ABS)
Provides statistics on primary production in Australia. For example, Survey of Farm Income and Regional Rural Statistics. Useful ABS numbers are 7507.0, 7508.0, 7102.0, 7503.0

AUSTRALIAN BUREAU OF AGRICULTURE AND RESEARCH ECONOMlCS (ABARE)
ABARE is a Commonwealth body concerned with specialised research particularly, future trends and economics of rural land uses. The ABARE reports on the future and expected market for crops and animal products are most probably, the best forecasts available. In valuation and farm investment reports the valuer/land economist is sometimes asked about the potential or future for the subject land use for example, wheat. Since it is difficult for the valuer or land economist to prepare their own econometric model it is better and easier to use the expert econometric models already constructed by ABARE. Therefore, when a client asks about the future for a particular rural land use, the
valuer/land economist should use ad include a copy of the ABARE report in his/her valuation. ABARE also carry out specialist reports on various rural industries.

AUSTRALIAN CENTRE FOR REMOTE SENSING (ACRES)
Provides small scale maps from the SPOT satellite. Includes special photography:


Scales: 1:100 000 to 1:400 000

BACK FATTER
Discarded brood sow in good condition. It is slaughtered for small goods meat.

BACONER
Pig killed for curing into bacon and ham. Live weight 68-100 kg. Carcase 50 (light) to 64 (medium) to 73 kg (heavy). Heavy grower of 55-80 kg dressed weight.

BANKS
Often publish economic and statistical data on rural matters. For example, the State Bank's Rural Report.

BARLEY
Barley can usually be grown where wheat is grown. As with the other winter cereals. Barley can be used for forage, grain or silage. It is unsuitable for hay because of awns.Two main uses: A small amount is milled (pearled), "staple barley" for human consumption.

BARREN
A female bovine incapable of breeding.

BLACK EARTHS (CHERNOZEMS)
Dark clay soils commonly known as black basalts. Decomposed basalts in hilly country transported by water to the plains and then deposited there. Has a high % of humus for example, Liverpool Plains of NSW. It is a very fertile and most suitable for wheat, linseed and sorghum.

BALDY
A white faced beast which is a Hereford or a Hereford cross. Generally, the white face is unsuitable for the hot regions of Australia.

BARROW
Castrated male pig.

BOAR
Male pig of any age. Male breeder.

BODY OF BEEF (CARCASE)
Slaughtered animal after skinning and dressing.

BOBBY CALVES
Small calves for slaughter but at least 10 days old.

BOVINE
Of the Ox family (Bovidae). Cattle.

BOX
Term used when one or more animals are placed in, or become mixed up with another group.

BRANDING
The placing of an identifying mark on the hide of an animal. It can be to identify ownership, age, sire or individual animals.

BREEDERS
Cows kept for breeding.

BREEDING - POULTRY
Mating of male and female. 1 male to 10 females.

BREEDING EWE
A ewe capable and suitable for breeding purposes.

BREEDY
A bull or cow possessing breeding character.

BROILER
Meat chicken male or female between 14 days old and 12 weeks.

BROKEN MOUTH
An aged sheep whose incisor teeth are breaking or falling out. The decline in value of broken mouth sheep is rapid but can be fattened on feed that is well grown and soft. Tooth extremes - 5 years to 9 years or even more.

BROODING
Provision of artificial heat to young birds from 1 day old up to 4 weeks of age.

BULL
A male bovine.

BULLOCK
A castrated male bovine over 2 years.

CFA
Cull for age.

CALF
A bovine under 6 months.

CARCASE OR CARCASS OR BODY OF BEEF
See BODY OF BEEF.

CAST FOR AGE (CFA) or CULLED FOR AGE
The culling or discarding of breeding stock because of age. They are too old to be commercially profitable.

CASTRATION - CASTRATED
The desexing of a male animal by removing the testicles. Marking or cutting.

CHARACTER
Breeding character. The presence of those features which indicate the ability to transmit good qualities to their off spring. Breed character: trueness to breed type. Possessing those features desirable in the breed to which they belong, highly developed.

CHOFFER
Discarded brood sow in light condition.

CHOICE - SHEEP
Very fleshy and well finished sheep at outstanding quality. Sell at a premium.

CITRUS
Any tree or shrub of the genua Citrus which includes the citron, lemon, lime, orange and grapefruit.

COCKEREL
A young male fowl.

CONDITION
The amount of flesh and/or fat on the animal for example, "good condition". Can be "fat", "prime", "store", "backward store", "poor", "lean" or "emaciated"

CONFORMATION
The physical make up of the animal. The framework, muscle and fat. That is, the shape, whether good or bad.

CONSTITUTION
The presence of those physical features which indicate physical hardiness and the ability to make proper use of feed intake in producing meat. Ability to thrive under adverse conditions.

COW
A female bovine after it has had a calf or over 2 years.

CRACKER - CATTLE
Indicates that the animal is finished, old, poor and incapable of fattening. Usually skin value only. For example, "cracker cow" a cow that is finished its reproductive capacity or milking life.

CROSSBRED
The progeny produced by the mating of 2 or more breeds. For example, Merino with Border Leicester = First Cross.

CRUTCHING
The removal by shearing of the wool around the breech for cleanliness and to reduce the probability of fly strike.

CULL
An animal excluded from the herd because of some undesirable feature or too old. CFA = culled for age. "Cull" unwanted stock.

CUPON
A castrated male fowl.

DAGGING
When sheep are cleaned of surplus dung deposits which are attached to the wool around the breech.

DAM
High quality stud mother.

DICOTYLEDON
A broad leaved flowering plant, shrub or tree. For example, a turnip, eucalypt. Differs in anatomy from a monocotyledon which has a narrow leaves and no tap root such as grass, onions and bamboo.

DEPARTMENTS OF AGRlCULTURE OR PRIMARY INDUSTRY (State and Federal) Supply information sheets on important topics. For example, AGFACTS (NSW) and Fact Sheets (SA). General and specific information on rural land uses. Specialist officers are available to advise on particular rural industries. The Departments have a program to map all the states according to land capability. The classification used is based on expected sustainability.
Departments publish "gross margins" on a regional basis. These are particularly useful from • a valuation/land economic point of view as they provide a financial datum for the most popular land uses in a district, against which the subject farm can be compared.

DESERT SOILS
Skeletal soils formed in areas receiving less than 200mm rainfall pa. Red/brown soil with a poorly developed profile.

DIP - DIPPING
The wetting an immersion of sheep with chemicals to kill tick, lice and other external parasites. Plunge dip. Two main methods:

DRAFTING
The division of a mob of cattle into 2 or more groups either in the yard or paddock. The latter is "camp drafting".

DRENCHING
The medicinal treatment of stock for the destruction of internal parasites. The forced swallowing of doses administered through a drench gun or bottle.

DRY COW
A cow which has completed lactation usually after 10 months.



DRY EWE
A ewe not suckling a lamb. The mammalian glands are dormant.

DRY SHEEP
Usually a wether, a sheep not used for breeding purposes.

DRYLAND FARMING
Farming, grazing or a pastoral land use without irrigation. For example, dryland sheep grazing in the Western Division. Crops and livestock are out in the open. Differs from irrigation farms, farms in the high rainfall belt and "factory farms" where plants and animals are under cover.

DUCKLING
A young duck.

ELUVIAL ZONE
The upper layers of the soil to a depth of about 30cm. Rainwater soaks or percolates into the eluvial zone carrying with it soluble nutrients into the subsoil (leaching). This happens in areas of high rainfall and produces a distinct horizon.

EMPTY
A cow not in calf.

EWES
Female sheep.

FARROW, FARROWING - PIGS
To give birth. Birth of piglets by sow.

FARROWING SHED
Sow maternity shed.

FAT
Suitable for slaughter.

FEADER PIG
Pig approaching baconer weight requiring final preparation for market.

FEED CONVERSION RATIO (FCR)
Kg feed eaten: live weight gained. For example, pigs 3.7:1.

FEED YEAR
A planning concept. Farmers estimate carrying capacity throughout the year and make provision for known feed demands.

FORCED MOULTING - POULTRY
A management technique which causes a moult of laying stock and a cessation of production for about 2 weeks. Improves quality of subsequent eggs and holds the birds for a longer period.

FOSTER COW
A cow suckling other than it's own calf.

FOUR TOOTH - SHEEP
Four permanent teeth. 2 years old.

FLOCK RAM
A ram used in ordinary flock mating.

FLY STRIKE
The depositing of eggs on the sheep by the blow fly and their development into larvae. Usually occurs on the crutch but in a bad season also on pizzles, eyes and shoulders. Controlled with wetting, crutching and/or mulesing.

FULL MOUTH - SHEEP
Eight permanent teeth - 4 years old.

GILT
Sow up to the age of farrowing her first litter. Unmarked female breeding pig. 6-8 months old.

GOOD DOER
An animal that makes good use of its feed intake.

GOSLING
A young goose.

GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS
There are a large number of government departments which control and/or licence farm activities. Generally, such departments or statutory bodies have available useful data on that industry. For example, the licensing of milk production on dairy farms.

GREY AND BROWN SOILS
Usually with a heavy texture. Occur in the western districts of Victoria, NSW and Queensland. Areas of medium to low rainfall. The A horizon always has a heavy texture.

GROWER
Pig more than 10-12 weeks of age.

HALF BRED
The progeny produced by mating of two pure breeds.

HEIFER
A female bovine before it has had a calf and is over 6 months old - up to 2.5 years.

HOGGET
A 2 tooth sheep about 1.5 years old.

HOOKY
An animal that is prominent at the hips.

HYBRID VIGOUR
When a plant or animal is bred with another having dissimilar genetic composition, hybrid vigour is likely. This unexplained characteristic accounts for increased growth rates and vigour in animals and plants. It is the opposite to "inbreeding" or "crossback"where decreased vigour is possible and likely.

INCUBATION
Heat treatment of eggs and control of temperature and humidity and ventilation to encourage hatching.

INTERMEDIATE - PIGS
A pig in between a porker and baconer weights.

JETTING
The wetting with various chemicals of the wool around the breech by high pressure jets. Usually done in a race and is a fly control measure.

JOINED - JOINING
The act of mating or a description of stock which have mated. Mated as distinct from served.

KIKUYU GRASS
A vigorous rhizomatous. Summer growing, perennial fodder grass.

KILLABLE
Possessing enough flesh to justify slaughter if necessary.

KRASNOZEM
Friable and acidic red soils with no sharp texture boundaries.

LACTATION
The time an animal is " in milk". For cows about 10 months.

LAMB MARKING
The tailing and ear tagging of all lambs, and the castration of male lambs.

LAMBING PERCENTAGE
The % of live lambs born to mated ewes. English breeds usually have a high rate because of the high number of twins born. Percentage of live lambs born to mated ewes. May refer to number of lambs alive to number born. Can also refer to number of lambs tailed or marked compared with number born or ewes mated.

LAMBING EWES
A flock actually in the process of lambing.

LEGUME
Plants which produce fruits called pods. For example, peas, beans, and clovers. Important because they add nitrogen to the soil.

LIGHTING - POULTRY
Provision of artificial light mainly to laying stock so as to provide 15-16 hours of daylight. Promotes egg production.

LITTER
The pigs produced at the one farrowing.

LOW OR WEAK CONDITION
Starved or emaciated either from starvation, disease or parasite infestation.

LUCERNE
A popular tap rooted perennial which can grow in a wide range of soils and climactic conditions. Sometimes called the "king" of fodder plants as no other plant lives so long and produces such a high value fodder. First class lucerne on irrigated alluvial flats near Tamworth. Hay is cut some 6-8 times a year. Second class lucerne is grown on deep
soils which receive a good summer rainfall for example, Liverpool Plains. Deep black soils grow lucerne which can be cut for hay 2/3 times a year. A good legume rotation on wheat lands receiving about 500 mm rainfall. It is also a good grazing crop.

LUPIN
Any plant of the leguminous genus lupinus. An European herb with edible seeds cultivated since ancient times.

MAIDEN EWES
Mature ewes, usually young which have not been mated.

MALTING BARLEY
The ideal malting barley has a uniform, dry, plump, undamaged, starchy grain with a thin skin and a rather low protein content (<10.5 - 11%). It should also be free of other cereals grain, weed seeds and other impurities. Requires an area of dependable and moderate rainfall with a long, mild ripening period and a lighter soil type of only medium fertility. Therefore, in Australia it is mainly grown in the southern areas of South Australia and Victoria. It does grow successfully on the Downs soils of Queensland.

MATED EWES
Ewes in lamb but not yet due to drop (to lamb).

MAIZE
As well as grain production, maize is an excellent crop for green feed and silage. The grain is either fed to sheep or pigs or made into breakfast foods. Requires a hot climate and a large amount of water. Therefore, it is only about the 10th most popular crop in Australia.

MARKED - SHEEP
Usually done from 3-7 weeks of age.

MILLET
Millet is a coarse grass used for silage, hay, and grazing. It is unable to stand drought conditions and therefore, is not popular in Australia. However, it is quick growing and can be used to clear land of weeds.

MOULTING - POULTRY
Shedding feathers.

MULESING
The removal with special shears of the skin wrinkles on the breech. Extends the bare area of that part and tightens the skin thus reducing the chances of fly strike.

MUSTERING
The rounding up or gathering of cattle in a paddock.

NEWLY DROPPED
Newly born.

NICKING
The mating of a bull with a cow or cows from which the resulting progeny proves satisfactory. That is, genetic make up proves compatible.

OESTRUM
In season, heat or bulling. The period when cow or heifer will accept a bull.

PICKLING
A term used by grain farmers. The seed has been treated with fungicide to reduce seed borne diseases.

PIGLET
Baby pig. Pig sucking on sow.

POME FRUIT
Apples and pears.

POOR
Stores low in condition but denotes underlying health.

PORKER
Pig killed for consumption as fresh meat (pork). Live weight 34-55 kg, about 27-40 kg carcass. Age 3.5 - 5.5 months.

POULTS
Young turkeys.

PLATES
The rump of an animal either side of backbone, between hip and pin.

PODDY CALVES
Artificially weaned, bucket fed calves.

PORKER - PIG
A grower. About 30-50 kg dressed weight.

PRIVATE RURAL DATA
There are a number of rural product firms and retailers who publish useful product information for the man on the land. For example, costs of sheds, races ,and yards.

PRODUCTIVE PERIOD - POULTRY
Egg production is commenced at 5 months (20-22 weeks). No bird is kept longer than 24 months in a commercial form and majority are culled by 18-20 months.

PRIME
Very fleshy and "finished" animal which will sell at a premium.

PROGENY
Offspring of any animal.

PULLETS
Female fowls up to 18 months of age after which they are called hens

PURE BRED PIG
Pig of either sex belonging to a recognised breed.

QUALITY
In beef cattle refers to the refinement which comes from good breeding. It is generally assessed by observing overall conformation, bone, skin, hair, fleshing and general outlook.

RAM
mature male sheep capable of breeding.

RINGING
The removal of stained wool around the pizzles of wethers and rams.



ROOSTER
Male fowls for breeding.

RYE
Sometimes called "ryecorn" or "cereal rye" to distinguish it from Ryegrass. Rye can grow on poorer soils than other winter cereals. It provides better growth under cold conditions than oats but does not recover as well after grazing. Does not utilize nitrogen as effectively as oats. A good cereal for sandy and dry regions but still requires reasonable spring rains. Unsuitable for hay production.

SECOND GROWTH
Many plants make rapid growth following drought conditions. Second growth is an undesirable condition in wheat and potatoes because harvesting may be delayed. However, it is a natural and desirable characteristic in fodder crops such as lucerne and forage sorghums.

SEMI PERMANENT CROPS
Orchards are semi permanent crops. When new and better genetic strains of fruit trees are developed they replace the older varieties. Some varieties of pome fruits such as Granny Smith apples have a life span of 50 years or more (if well maintained and fertilized).

SHEARING
The removal of the wool or fleece of sheep. Two methods:

Freshly shorn sheep are described as "off shears". A "quarter wool" is a sheep shorn 3 months ago, a "half wool" 6 months ago and so on. A "full wool" is a sheep with 12 months staple. A more common and better method is to describe the sheep as "April shorn" etc.

SIDE OF BEEF
When a body of beef is divided lengthways each half is called a side.

SIRE
A male parent. A ram, bull or stallion of high quality and stud standard as distinct from for example, a flock ram. Rams are normally mated at from 2.5 - 3% of the ewe flock or 5-6 rams to 2 000 ewes.

SIREY
The presence of those features in a bull that indicates his ability to transfer his good or desirable features to his offspring.

SIX TOOTH - SHEEP
Six permanent teeth. About 3 years old.

SLINK CALVES
New born.

SOD SEEDING
Generally, the paddock is grazed hard before removing the top cover. The application of seed at time of ploughing instead of the preparation of a "seedbed" to be sowed at a later time. The placement of fertilizer below the seed by way of separate delivery tubes for seed and fertilizer. The system has the following advantages:

SOUND MOUTH
A sheep 4 years or over but whose incisor teeth are still sound. Usually refers to sheep about 5/6 years old.

SOW
Female pig of any age. Mated female breeder.

SPAYED
A de sexed female by way of removing the ovaries.

SPRINGER
Cow in calf. First 4-5 months of gestation period referred to as "backward springer". The remainder of gestation period as "forward springer".

SPRINGING SOW
Mature sow approaching time to farrow.

STAG - CATTLE
A castrated male bovine but still showing distinct male tendencies or having undescended testicles.

STAG - PIGS
A castrated adult male pig.

STEER
A castrated male bovine under 2 years of age. As a saleyard term refers to animals between 2-3 years. Bulls castrated late in life are called "stags".

STONE FRUIT
Peaches, nectarines, plums and apricots.

STORE PIG
Pig approaching marketable weight either as porker or baconer

STORES
Healthy animals putting on condition and ready to fatten.

SUCKER
A lamb or piglet suckling it's mother.

SUCKERS - VEGETATION
Timber regrowth after clearing. After clearing a number of "cleanups" are required to eradicate the resultant suckers.

SYMMETRY OR BALANCE
The balance proportions of an animal in relation to its overall structure. That is, each part in proportion to its neighbour as well as to the whole animal. For example, it is poor balance to have a large head on a small body or vice versa or heavy fore end.

TAILED OR MARKED
See MARKED.



TEMPERAMENT
Refers to the nervous reaction of an animal. Can be defined as alert, docile, quiet, wild, flighty, dull or stubborn.

THROWING
Manual or assisted means of putting an animal down on the ground. Can be done without a rope.

TILLERS
Plants in the grass family often have more than 1 stem rising from the root base. Winter cereals have numerous tillers whereas maize and grain sorghum usually only have 1 stem.

TINDERS - CATTLE
Very poor condition when slaughtered.

TRADE PAPERS
Trade papers often have useful farm information and have the advantage of being very topical. For example, The Stock Journal and the The Land. Property section – Financial Review.

TRITICALE
A cross between wheat and rye. A new plant with some characteristics of wheat and rye. Valuable as a green fodder crop and grain fodder in feed mixes. Becoming increasingly popular.

TWO TOOTH SHEEP
A hogget can be a 2 tooth or a 1 tooth. About 1.5 year.

UNIVERSITIES
Those universities with agricultural schools publish rural research papers. Although a great deal of the research has a narrow focus, some research/ articles are useful for valuation/farm viability assessment. University extension departments usually have very useful practical data for example, UNE's comparative or group self help schemes.

VEAL
A butchers term for meat from a calf slaughtered at an early age. Veal from bobby calves is a saleyard term.

VEALER - CATTLE
Between 6-10 months, still suckling. A saleyard term for a large calf, male or female up to the age of 12 months.

WEANER - SHEEP
A lamb sufficiently developed to be able to forage for itself and which has been separated from its mother. Period varies considerably from 4-7 months. A lamb ceases to be a lamb when it's 2 permanent teeth appear. It can then be sold as mutton.
WEANER - CATTLE, PIG
A young bovine or pig that has been recently separated from its mother. Pig at about 4- 10 months old.

WEANER
A young animal which has been weaned from it's mother's milk and can live solely on grass.

WEANING - PIGS
Act of removing mother from the litter. This may be done from a early as 14 days (early weaned) to 8 weeks (normal weaning). The animal is known as a weaner.

WET EWE
A ewe suckling it's lamb.

WIGGING
Removal by shearing of the long wool around the eyes of the sheep. Unless removed wool can restrict vision and may if neglected cause wool blindness. Sheep lose condition because of their inability to find feed and water. Droving and control is more difficult as the inclination of sheep to stay in a mob is impaired.

YEARLING - CATTLE
A bovine between 10-14 months.


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