soils deposited by running water. Usually deep even loams. They are
immature soils because of a lack of profile but often very fertile
and well drained. May contain silt.
new and improved genetic material which has been imported from North
America. It has an inherent resistance against known aphid attacks.
BUREAU OF STATISTICS (ABS)
statistics on primary production in Australia. For example, Survey of
Farm Income and Regional Rural Statistics. Useful ABS numbers are
7507.0, 7508.0, 7102.0, 7503.0
BUREAU OF AGRICULTURE AND RESEARCH ECONOMlCS (ABARE)
is a Commonwealth body concerned with specialised research
particularly, future trends and economics of rural land uses. The
ABARE reports on the future and expected market for crops and animal
products are most probably, the best forecasts available. In
valuation and farm investment reports the valuer/land economist is
sometimes asked about the potential or future for the subject land
use for example, wheat. Since it is difficult for the valuer or land
economist to prepare their own econometric model it is better and
easier to use the expert econometric models already constructed by
ABARE. Therefore, when a client asks about the future for a
particular rural land use, the
economist should use ad include a copy of the ABARE report in his/her
valuation. ABARE also carry out specialist reports on various rural
CENTRE FOR REMOTE SENSING (ACRES)
small scale maps from the SPOT satellite. Includes special
green, red band, near infra red band
1:100 000 to 1:400 000
brood sow in good condition. It is slaughtered for small goods meat.
killed for curing into bacon and ham. Live weight 68-100 kg. Carcase
50 (light) to 64 (medium) to 73 kg (heavy). Heavy grower of 55-80 kg
publish economic and statistical data on rural matters. For example,
the State Bank's Rural Report.
can usually be grown where wheat is grown. As with the other winter
cereals. Barley can be used for forage, grain or silage. It is
unsuitable for hay because of awns.Two main uses:
small amount is milled (pearled), "staple barley" for human
- Malting - see
- Animal feed.
female bovine incapable of breeding.
clay soils commonly known as black basalts. Decomposed basalts in
hilly country transported by water to the plains and then deposited
there. Has a high % of humus for example, Liverpool Plains of NSW. It
is a very fertile and most suitable for wheat, linseed and sorghum.
white faced beast which is a Hereford or a Hereford cross. Generally,
the white face is unsuitable for the hot regions of Australia.
pig of any age. Male breeder.
OF BEEF (CARCASE)
animal after skinning and dressing.
calves for slaughter but at least 10 days old.
the Ox family (Bovidae). Cattle.
used when one or more animals are placed in, or become mixed up with
placing of an identifying mark on the hide of an animal. It can be to
identify ownership, age, sire or individual animals.
kept for breeding.
of male and female. 1 male to 10 females.
ewe capable and suitable for breeding purposes.
bull or cow possessing breeding character.
chicken male or female between 14 days old and 12 weeks.
aged sheep whose incisor teeth are breaking or falling out. The
decline in value of broken mouth sheep is rapid but can be fattened
on feed that is well grown and soft. Tooth extremes - 5 years to 9
years or even more.
of artificial heat to young birds from 1 day old up to 4 weeks of
castrated male bovine over 2 years.
bovine under 6 months.
OR CARCASS OR BODY OF BEEF
BODY OF BEEF.
FOR AGE (CFA) or CULLED FOR AGE
culling or discarding of breeding stock because of age. They are too
old to be commercially profitable.
desexing of a male animal by removing the testicles. Marking or
character. The presence of those features which indicate the ability
to transmit good qualities to their off spring. Breed character:
trueness to breed type. Possessing those features desirable in the
breed to which they belong, highly developed.
brood sow in light condition.
fleshy and well finished sheep at outstanding quality. Sell at a
tree or shrub of the genua Citrus which includes the citron, lemon,
lime, orange and grapefruit.
young male fowl.
amount of flesh and/or fat on the animal for example, "good
condition". Can be "fat", "prime", "store",
"backward store", "poor", "lean" or
physical make up of the animal. The framework, muscle and fat. That
is, the shape, whether good or bad.
presence of those physical features which indicate physical hardiness
and the ability to make proper use of feed intake in producing meat.
Ability to thrive under adverse conditions.
female bovine after it has had a calf or over 2 years.
that the animal is finished, old, poor and incapable of fattening.
Usually skin value only. For example, "cracker cow" a cow
that is finished its reproductive capacity or milking life.
progeny produced by the mating of 2 or more breeds. For example,
Merino with Border Leicester = First Cross.
removal by shearing of the wool around the breech for cleanliness and
to reduce the probability of fly strike.
animal excluded from the herd because of some undesirable feature or
too old. CFA = culled for age. "Cull" unwanted stock.
castrated male fowl.
sheep are cleaned of surplus dung deposits which are attached to the
wool around the breech.
quality stud mother.
broad leaved flowering plant, shrub or tree. For example, a turnip,
eucalypt. Differs in anatomy from a monocotyledon which has a narrow
leaves and no tap root such as grass, onions and bamboo.
OF AGRlCULTURE OR PRIMARY INDUSTRY (State and Federal) Supply
information sheets on important topics. For example, AGFACTS (NSW)
and Fact Sheets (SA). General and specific information on rural land
uses. Specialist officers are available to advise on particular rural
industries. The Departments have a program to map all the states
according to land capability. The classification used is based on
publish "gross margins" on a regional basis. These are
particularly useful from • a valuation/land economic point of view
as they provide a financial datum for the most popular land uses in a
district, against which the subject farm can be compared.
soils formed in areas receiving less than 200mm rainfall pa.
Red/brown soil with a poorly developed profile.
wetting an immersion of sheep with chemicals to kill tick, lice and
other external parasites. Plunge dip. Two main methods:
- Plunge or swim
dip- Sheep swim through a long narrow dip being pushed under to wet
- Spray dip:
Sheep confined in round galvanised steel yard and sprayed from above,
below and side.
division of a mob of cattle into 2 or more groups either in the yard
or paddock. The latter is "camp drafting".
medicinal treatment of stock for the destruction of internal
parasites. The forced swallowing of doses administered through a
drench gun or bottle.
cow which has completed lactation usually after 10 months.
ewe not suckling a lamb. The mammalian glands are dormant.
a wether, a sheep not used for breeding purposes.
grazing or a pastoral land use without irrigation. For example,
dryland sheep grazing in the Western Division. Crops and livestock
are out in the open. Differs from irrigation farms, farms in the high
rainfall belt and "factory farms" where plants and animals
are under cover.
upper layers of the soil to a depth of about 30cm. Rainwater soaks or
percolates into the eluvial zone carrying with it soluble nutrients
into the subsoil (leaching). This happens in areas of high rainfall
and produces a distinct horizon.
cow not in calf.
FARROWING - PIGS
give birth. Birth of piglets by sow.
approaching baconer weight requiring final preparation for market.
CONVERSION RATIO (FCR)
feed eaten: live weight gained. For example, pigs 3.7:1.
planning concept. Farmers estimate carrying capacity throughout the
year and make provision for known feed demands.
MOULTING - POULTRY
management technique which causes a moult of laying stock and a
cessation of production for about 2 weeks. Improves quality of
subsequent eggs and holds the birds for a longer period.
cow suckling other than it's own calf.
TOOTH - SHEEP
permanent teeth. 2 years old.
ram used in ordinary flock mating.
depositing of eggs on the sheep by the blow fly and their development
into larvae. Usually occurs on the crutch but in a bad season also on
pizzles, eyes and shoulders. Controlled with wetting, crutching
MOUTH - SHEEP
permanent teeth - 4 years old.
up to the age of farrowing her first litter. Unmarked female breeding
pig. 6-8 months old.
animal that makes good use of its feed intake.
are a large number of government departments which control and/or
licence farm activities. Generally, such departments or statutory
bodies have available useful data on that industry. For example, the
licensing of milk production on dairy farms.
AND BROWN SOILS
with a heavy texture. Occur in the western districts of Victoria, NSW
and Queensland. Areas of medium to low rainfall. The A horizon always
has a heavy texture.
more than 10-12 weeks of age.
progeny produced by mating of two pure breeds.
female bovine before it has had a calf and is over 6 months old - up
to 2.5 years.
2 tooth sheep about 1.5 years old.
animal that is prominent at the hips.
a plant or animal is bred with another having dissimilar genetic
composition, hybrid vigour is likely. This unexplained characteristic
accounts for increased growth rates and vigour in animals and plants.
It is the opposite to "inbreeding" or "crossback"where
decreased vigour is possible and likely.
treatment of eggs and control of temperature and humidity and
ventilation to encourage hatching.
pig in between a porker and baconer weights.
wetting with various chemicals of the wool around the breech by high
pressure jets. Usually done in a race and is a fly control measure.
act of mating or a description of stock which have mated. Mated as
distinct from served.
vigorous rhizomatous. Summer growing, perennial fodder grass.
enough flesh to justify slaughter if necessary.
and acidic red soils with no sharp texture boundaries.
time an animal is " in milk". For cows about 10 months.
tailing and ear tagging of all lambs, and the castration of male
% of live lambs born to mated ewes. English breeds usually have a
high rate because of the high number of twins born. Percentage of
live lambs born to mated ewes. May refer to number of lambs alive to
number born. Can also refer to number of lambs tailed or marked
compared with number born or ewes mated.
flock actually in the process of lambing.
which produce fruits called pods. For example, peas, beans, and
clovers. Important because they add nitrogen to the soil.
of artificial light mainly to laying stock so as to provide 15-16
hours of daylight. Promotes egg production.
pigs produced at the one farrowing.
OR WEAK CONDITION
or emaciated either from starvation, disease or parasite infestation.
popular tap rooted perennial which can grow in a wide range of soils
and climactic conditions. Sometimes called the "king" of
fodder plants as no other plant lives so long and produces such a
high value fodder. First class lucerne on irrigated alluvial flats
near Tamworth. Hay is cut some 6-8 times a year. Second class lucerne
is grown on deep
which receive a good summer rainfall for example, Liverpool Plains.
Deep black soils grow lucerne which can be cut for hay 2/3 times a
year. A good legume rotation on wheat lands receiving about 500 mm
rainfall. It is also a good grazing crop.
plant of the leguminous genus lupinus. An European herb with
edible seeds cultivated since ancient times.
ewes, usually young which have not been mated.
ideal malting barley has a uniform, dry, plump, undamaged, starchy
grain with a thin skin and a rather low protein content (<10.5 -
11%). It should also be free of other cereals grain, weed seeds and
other impurities. Requires an area of dependable and moderate
rainfall with a long, mild ripening period and a lighter soil type of
only medium fertility. Therefore, in Australia it is mainly grown in
the southern areas of South Australia and Victoria. It does grow
successfully on the Downs soils of Queensland.
in lamb but not yet due to drop (to lamb).
well as grain production, maize is an excellent crop for green feed
and silage. The grain is either fed to sheep or pigs or made into
breakfast foods. Requires a hot climate and a large amount of water.
Therefore, it is only about the 10th most popular crop in Australia.
done from 3-7 weeks of age.
is a coarse grass used for silage, hay, and grazing. It is unable to
stand drought conditions and therefore, is not popular in Australia.
However, it is quick growing and can be used to clear land of weeds.
removal with special shears of the skin wrinkles on the breech.
Extends the bare area of that part and tightens the skin thus
reducing the chances of fly strike.
rounding up or gathering of cattle in a paddock.
mating of a bull with a cow or cows from which the resulting progeny
proves satisfactory. That is, genetic make up proves compatible.
season, heat or bulling. The period when cow or heifer will accept a
term used by grain farmers. The seed has been treated with fungicide
to reduce seed borne diseases.
pig. Pig sucking on sow.
low in condition but denotes underlying health.
killed for consumption as fresh meat (pork). Live weight 34-55 kg,
about 27-40 kg carcass. Age 3.5 - 5.5 months.
rump of an animal either side of backbone, between hip and pin.
weaned, bucket fed calves.
grower. About 30-50 kg dressed weight.
are a number of rural product firms and retailers who publish useful
product information for the man on the land. For example, costs of
sheds, races ,and yards.
PERIOD - POULTRY
production is commenced at 5 months (20-22 weeks). No bird is kept
longer than 24 months in a commercial form and majority are culled by
fleshy and "finished" animal which will sell at a premium.
of any animal.
fowls up to 18 months of age after which they are called hens
of either sex belonging to a recognised breed.
beef cattle refers to the refinement which comes from good breeding.
It is generally assessed by observing overall conformation, bone,
skin, hair, fleshing and general outlook.
male sheep capable of breeding.
removal of stained wool around the pizzles of wethers and rams.
fowls for breeding.
called "ryecorn" or "cereal rye" to distinguish
it from Ryegrass. Rye can grow on poorer soils than other winter
cereals. It provides better growth under cold conditions than oats
but does not recover as well after grazing. Does not utilize nitrogen
as effectively as oats. A good cereal for sandy and dry regions but
still requires reasonable spring rains. Unsuitable for hay
plants make rapid growth following drought conditions. Second growth
is an undesirable condition in wheat and potatoes because harvesting
may be delayed. However, it is a natural and desirable characteristic
in fodder crops such as lucerne and forage sorghums.
are semi permanent crops. When new and better genetic strains of
fruit trees are developed they replace the older varieties. Some
varieties of pome fruits such as Granny Smith apples have a life span
of 50 years or more (if well maintained and fertilized).
removal of the wool or fleece of sheep. Two methods:
shorn sheep are described as "off shears". A "quarter
wool" is a sheep shorn 3 months ago, a "half wool" 6
months ago and so on. A "full wool" is a sheep with 12
months staple. A more common and better method is to describe the
sheep as "April shorn" etc.
- By shears or
blades known as "blade" or "hand shearing". This is only economical for
a very small flock. Wool is cut closer to the skin with blades.
- By machine
using a handpiece with comb and cutter powered by an engine or
electricity. Known as "machine shearing".
a body of beef is divided lengthways each half is called a side.
male parent. A ram, bull or stallion of high quality and stud
standard as distinct from for example, a flock ram. Rams are normally
mated at from 2.5 - 3% of the ewe flock or 5-6 rams to 2 000 ewes.
presence of those features in a bull that indicates his ability to
transfer his good or desirable features to his offspring.
TOOTH - SHEEP
permanent teeth. About 3 years old.
the paddock is grazed hard before removing the top cover. The
application of seed at time of ploughing instead of the preparation
of a "seedbed" to be sowed at a later time. The placement
of fertilizer below the seed by way of separate delivery tubes for
seed and fertilizer. The system has the following advantages:
- The seed is
sown in wetter soil
- Less erosion
- Can often be
used in rough country
penetration and conservation is improved with the use of the tyned sod
- Legume bacteria
develops rapidly in the moist furrows
- Fertilizer is
placed near the seed thus preventing waste
- Promotes worm
sheep 4 years or over but whose incisor teeth are still sound.
Usually refers to sheep about 5/6 years old.
pig of any age. Mated female breeder.
de sexed female by way of removing the ovaries.
in calf. First 4-5 months of gestation period referred to as
"backward springer". The remainder of gestation period as
sow approaching time to farrow.
castrated male bovine but still showing distinct male tendencies or
having undescended testicles.
castrated adult male pig.
castrated male bovine under 2 years of age. As a saleyard term refers
to animals between 2-3 years. Bulls castrated late in life are called
nectarines, plums and apricots.
approaching marketable weight either as porker or baconer
animals putting on condition and ready to fatten.
lamb or piglet suckling it's mother.
regrowth after clearing. After clearing a number of "cleanups"
are required to eradicate the resultant suckers.
balance proportions of an animal in relation to its overall
structure. That is, each part in proportion to its neighbour as well
as to the whole animal. For example, it is poor balance to have a
large head on a small body or vice versa or heavy fore end.
to the nervous reaction of an animal. Can be defined as alert,
docile, quiet, wild, flighty, dull or stubborn.
or assisted means of putting an animal down on the ground. Can be
done without a rope.
in the grass family often have more than 1 stem rising from the root
base. Winter cereals have numerous tillers whereas maize and grain
sorghum usually only have 1 stem.
poor condition when slaughtered.
papers often have useful farm information and have the advantage of
being very topical. For example, The Stock Journal and the The Land.
Property section – Financial Review.
cross between wheat and rye. A new plant with some characteristics of
wheat and rye. Valuable as a green fodder crop and grain fodder in
feed mixes. Becoming increasingly popular.
hogget can be a 2 tooth or a 1 tooth. About 1.5 year.
universities with agricultural schools publish rural research papers.
Although a great deal of the research has a narrow focus, some
research/ articles are useful for valuation/farm viability
assessment. University extension departments usually have very useful
practical data for example, UNE's comparative or group self help
butchers term for meat from a calf slaughtered at an early age. Veal
from bobby calves is a saleyard term.
6-10 months, still suckling. A saleyard term for a large calf, male
or female up to the age of 12 months.
lamb sufficiently developed to be able to forage for itself and which
has been separated from its mother. Period varies considerably from
4-7 months. A lamb ceases to be a lamb when it's 2 permanent teeth
appear. It can then be sold as mutton.
- CATTLE, PIG
young bovine or pig that has been recently separated from its mother.
Pig at about 4- 10 months old.
young animal which has been weaned from it's mother's milk and can
live solely on grass.
of removing mother from the litter. This may be done from a early as
14 days (early weaned) to 8 weeks (normal weaning). The animal is
known as a weaner.
ewe suckling it's lamb.
by shearing of the long wool around the eyes of the sheep. Unless
removed wool can restrict vision and may if neglected cause wool
blindness. Sheep lose condition because of their inability to find
feed and water. Droving and control is more difficult as the
inclination of sheep to stay in a mob is impaired.
bovine between 10-14 months.