Oats and barley are grown extensively on dryland farms as winter fodder crops. Oats is more common in colder districts and both are grown for grain. Barley is of 2 types; "one row" or "two row". This refers to the number of rows of grain on the seed head. Only two row barley is used in the malt or brewing industry but either may be used in the feed grain industry. Barley grain is sought after by stock feed millers who prepare meals for poultry, pigs and cattle. The soils and climate of South Australia is particularly suited for barley growing.

Oats and barley have their own specific fungal parasites. Both crops are grown in rotation with wheat. Oats is similar to wheat when viewed from a distance and is harvested in the same way. Oat grain will often be stored on the farm as a drought reserve or sold at a later date when prices improve.