A community, cannot function without effective services such as clean water, and drainage and sewage disposal. As the city grows additional infrastructure will be required, many existing services will require updating and some infrastructure may cease to be required. Efficiency of infrastructure provision and use is critical to the costs of operating the city. It is also one of the factors affecting the cost of doing business in the city, therefore affecting the city's competitiveness   as it looks outwards this aspect of efficiency will become even more important.

Infrastructure also affects the quality of life of a city's residents, as well as contributing to:

The provision of physical infrastructure and services, and the ability of the city to maintain or improve them is affected by a number of factors, including the size of the city, its topography and land uses, the distribution and growth trends of the population and the economy.