building terms t


T (Tee}

In plumbing, a pie fitting, shaped like the letter '', placed in a water line, gas line, to make a branch at right angles from the line being tapped.

In electrical installations, a connector shaped like the letter 'T' for connecting a conduit branch at right angle with another.


TACK

A short fastener with a large head, used for securing linoleum and rugs to floors.


TAIL BAY

The end division or bay of a framed roof of floor which is next to the end wall.


TAMP

To pound down or consolidate the material.


TANK, Water Storage

A reservoir for storing water. In housing where a tank is used for the storage of roof waters, it is generally made with circular walls of corrugated galvanised steel or poly. Tanks of various other types and materials are also used for hot water and sewerage systems.


TANK STAND

A platform to carry a storage tank.


TARGET DIMENSION

See DIMENSION, Manufacturing


TEMPER

To mix mortar or plaster to the proper consistency for use.


TEMPERATURE STRESS RODS

Steel rods placed horizontally in concrete slabs for prevention of cracks, due to temperature changes, usually laid at right angles to and almost in the same plane as reinforcing rods.


TEMPLATE

A guide for forming work to be done.


TENON

The reduced end of a piece of timber that fits into a mortise See MORTISE


TENON, Mortise and

A joint where a mortise is formed in a piece of timber to receive the tenon from another piece; the common mortise and tenon joint is secured by inserting wedges at each side of the tenon from the back of the mortise.

Stub or Stump: A short tenon fitting into a mortise that does not extend through the full depth of the adjoining timber.


TENSILE STRAIN

See TENSILE STRESS


TENSILE STRENGTH

The strength necessary to enable a structure or structural member to resist a tensile strain.


TENSILE STRESS

The stress or strain to which a structure or structural members subjected when in tension. See 'Tension


TENSION

A pulling or stretching force.


TERMITE SHIELD

See ANT-CAPPING


TERRACE

An unroofed built-up area, generally opening off a room.


TERRACE NOUSING

A group of one or two storey dwellings separated by party walls. Also known as row housing.


TERRA COTTA

Clay shaped into various building forms, eg. roofing tiles, and baked at high temperatures in special kilns.


TERRAZZO

Material produced be setting irregular fragments of marble In a matrix of cement, and rubbing them down to a smooth surface.


TESSELATTED, (Teggera)

Formed of cubes of stone, marble, glass or other suitable materials (tessera),arranged in a checkered pattern as in mosaic floors and pavements.


THATCH

Natural fibre covering for a roof (e.g. straw, rushes, reeds, or leaves).


THERMAL RESISTANCE

The reciprocal of thermal conductance. See 'CONDUCTANCE


THERMAL TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENT

See 'AIR TO AIR Transmission COEFFICIENT' and U VALUE


THERMOPLASTIC TLLES

Flooring tiles made from asphalt, asbestos fibre, thermoplastic resins, and similar materials.


THERMOSTAT

An automatic control of the operation of a heating or cooling device by responding to changes of temperature of the space.


THICKNESS

A dimension, in any plane,whose magnitude is small compared to that of other dimensions.


THICKNESSING

Machining timber to an even thickness.


THIMBLE, Pop

A short length of pipe fixed into the spouting of roof gutter to which the downpipe is attached. See 'DOWNPIPE


THRESHOLD

The step or sill or an external door.


THROAT, (Throating)

A small groove made on the underside of a sill, coping, etc. to prevent water running inward towards the wall. Also that part of a chimney connecting the fireplace opening with the flue-See 'CHIMNEY THROAT


THRUST

The outward pressure on a material due to the loading carried by it (e.g. by a rafter against a supporting wall).


TIE


A horizontal member in tension, usually a timber of steel rod binding two members of sections of a building together to prevent spreading. (See 'TIE, collar'.)


TIE, Collar

A timber member tying a pair of rafters, usually placed midway between the wall plate and ridge.


TIES, Wall

Shaped galvanised wire of galvanised iron straps built into cavity walls to bind the inner and outer leaves, also in brick veneer construction to bind the framework to the brickwork.


TIE WIRE

In tile roofing, copper, galvanised or other wire, used to tie roofing tiles to the battens in the French (Marseilles) pattern tile. The wire is inserted through a special lug on the underside.


TILE, Apex

A special angular ridge tile used to cover the intersection of a ridge and hips.

Concrete: Roofing Tiles made of concrete in various shapes and sizes.

Eaves: The tile used in the bottom coarse of roof tiling, sometimes resting on a tilting fillet.

Ridge: A tile used for covering the ridge or hip of a tiled roof. In section it is generally angular, but occasionally semi-circular. The lengths are fitted together with flanged or overlapping joints. (See 'Hip', 'RIDGE'.)

Floor and Walls: Usually thin slabs of specially prepared clay in a variety of sizes, colours and patterns, baked at high temperatures Glazed tiles are generally used for walls and unglazed tiles for floors.

Terra Cotta: A terra cotta roofing component; the shape most commonly ucsed has been the French pattern, commonly called 'Marseilles' tiles.

Verge: A full tile or half tile in any course, which is fixed parallel to and projecting over, or flush with, the verge on a gable roof. (See 'VERGE'.)


TILE HANGING

The hanging of tiles on a vertical surface (e.g. on a wall to protect against dampness).


TIMBER

For or definition of terms relating to timber used in the structure of finishes of buildings, reference should be made to S.A.A. publication ASO-1g64, 'Terms used in Timber Standards'


TOE

See BOOT'.


TOE NAILING

The driving of a nail, slanting to the end of a piece of timber to attach it to another piece, to avoid having the heads of the nails show above the surface (e.g. flooring)see 'SECRET NAILING'.


TOM

A temporary prop or strut.


TONGUE

See TONGUING AND GROOVING


TONGUING AND GROOVING

A method by which one board is grooved along the edge and the other tongued, so that one fits into the other.


TOOLED JOINTS

Mortar joints which are specialty prepared by compressing and spreading the mortar after it has set slightly (e.g. weathered joint, v joint, and concave joint-see 'JOINT').


TOOTHING

The temporary end of a wall built so that the end stretcher of every alternate course projects to bond with future adjoining walls.


TOPPING

A mixture of cement, sand, and water, to create the finishedsurface of concrete work such as paths and floors.


TOPPING JOINT

A space or break of about 3mm made at regular intervals, particularly over expansion joints.


TOPPLATE

See PLATE,wall'.


TOUGH RUBBER COMPOUND COVERED CABLE

Vulcanized rubber insulated cables, covered with a tough rubber compound.


TRABEATE (Trabeated)

The principle of post and lintel construction as distinguished from the vaulted or arched type.


TRANSOM

An intermediate horizontal member of a door or window frame.


TRANSPORTABLE BUILDINGS

Buildings or large parts of buildings prefabricated in a factory and capable of being transported from the factory to a building site where they are lowered on to previously constructed footings.


TRAP

A plumbing term used to describe any fitting which retains water to form water seal for preventing the passage of gases, of for intercepting gases or silt, grease, acid or oil and that permits the free passage of liquids and solids through it. The depth of water in a trap through which gas must pass to effect passage is called the 'water seal'.

Boundary or interceptor: A trap generally placed as near as possible to the point where the sewer line leaves a property for discharge to the main sewer or where the house sewer line discharges into the main sewer; a trap preventing the passage of air or gases from the sewer to the drain at some point between the sewer and the lowest inlet to the drain.

Disconnected or Gully: A trap for isolating of disconnecting waste pipes from the drain and soil pipes and providing inlet ventilation to the waste pipe or pies discharging into it. (See 'PIPE, soil', 'Pipe waste'.)

Grease: A trap designed to prevent grease from entering the drainage system.

Gully or Yard: A trap with a vertical inlet placed in the yard of an allotment and as near as practicable to the kitchen or back door. This trap is provided with a gully basin and grating, with a water tap above. Sometimes a gully ring is placed over the gully basin to prevent surface water from entering the sewer drain or the gully Basin may be raised above ground level for the same purpose.


TRAP DOOR

A covering for an opening in a floor, ceiling, of roof.


TRAY

A shallow sheet metal container placed under a tank, of fitting that is not set on an impervious surface. lt confines any overflow, which is carried off through an attached pipe.


TREAD

In a stairway, the horizontal portion of each step.


TRELLIS

A structure or frame of cross-barred work or lattice work.


TRENCH


TRIM


TRIMMER

The cross-member inserted when an opening is formed in framework to which the ends of the cut members are fixed. The trimmer itself is fixed between uncut joists or studs.


TRIMMING JOIST

See JOIST, jack


TRUSS

A coplanar system of structural members joined together at their ends to form a stable (braced) framework.


TRUSSED BEAM

A beam stiffened by a truss rod.


TRUSSED WALL OPENING

A wall opening where the framing is trussed to support a concentrated load carried above the opening.


TUCK POINTING

The finishing of masonry joints along the centre lines with a narrow parallel ridge of fine lime mortar.


TURRETS

Small towers, often ornamental features at an angle of a large building which either begin at some distance above the ground, or rise from the ground.





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