building terms s



S.A.A.SPECIFICATION OR CODE

A specification or code recommended by the Standards Association of Australia.


SABIN

The unit of sound absorption, equivalent to the absorption of 0.093 m2 of open window (after Dr Sabine, pioneer of acoustics).


SADDLE

A pressed semi-circular fitting, used to maintain conduit in position.


SAFE CARRYING CAPACITY

Design of any piece or part of a building to support the load without falling.


SAGGING

The bending of a structure or structural member because of its own weight or from the load upon it.


SAND

Fine gravel, grains of quartz,or other minerals resulting from the disintegration of rock.


SAND FINISH

The finish to internal walls obtained by floating the final coat of rendering with a wooden, felt-covered or carpet-covered float. (See FLOATING)


SANDING

The smoothing down of visible timbers with sandpaper. The sanding of floors is casually done with a sanding machine. (See FLOOR SURFACING)


SANDPAPER

An abrasive paper,made by coating a heaW paper with fine sand or other abrasives held in place by adhesive and used for polishing surfaces and finishing work.


SANDSTONE

A building stone, usually quartz, composed of fine grains of sand cemented together with silica, oxide of iron, or carbonate of lime.


SANDWICH COMPOSITE

Construction of light alloys, plastics, plasterboard, construction generally of a hard outer sheet glued to an inner core of foam plastics or paper honeycomb. For its weight it is extremely strong, particularly if purposely arched or warped. Expanded polystyrene and polyurethane are often used in cores.


SARKING


A covering of waterproof building paper beneath the external roof covering.


SASH

The framework in a window, into which the glass is fitted.


SASH BALANCE

A mechanical suspension designed to balance the weight of a vertically sliding window sash.


SASHBARS (Glazing bars)

Narrow metal or wrot timber members used in a sash, rebated and moulded similarly to the stiles and rails, to support the panes.


SASHCORD

The cord or chain by which the sash of a double hung window is attached to its balance weights now replaced generally by sash balances.


SASH FAST (Fastener)

A locking device made in two parts for attaching to the meeting rails of the sashes of a double hung window.


SASH LIFT

A grip generally of metal, attached to the bottom rail of the lower sash of a double hung window, to enable the sash to be opened.


SASH PULLEY

In a window frame,the small pulley over which the sash cord or chain runs.


SASH RUN

The part of a window jamb in which a sash pulley is fastened.


SASH WEIGHT

See WINDOW, doublehung, box frame


SAWTOOTH ROOF (Sawtooth skylight}

A simple roof, having a profile similar to the teeth of a saw usually with vertical glazing facing south (in the southern hemisphere) to achieve a minimum variation of lighting throughout the day and a minimum of direct sunlight. In housing, this type of roof is sometimes use a to obtain natural lighting for rooms which do not have an external wall.


SCABBLE

The dressing down of the roughest irregularities and projections of stonework or the roughening of a smooth finish (e.g. concrete).


SCABBLED RUBBLE

See RUBBLE MASONRY


SCAFFOLD

A temporary support structure for workmen and materials,when the work is too high to be reached from a permanent platform.


SCAGLIOLA

An imitation of stone or marble used for floor, columns,etc and made of finely ground gypsum mixed with an adhesive such as a hard cement, and variegated on the surface while in a plastic condition, with chips of marble or with coloured graphite dust which when hardened is finished with a high polish.


SCANTLINGS

Sawn framing timbers of comparatively small dimensions (e.g. 100 x 50} in a building.


SCARFING

The joining of two pieces of timber together in length by which the two ends are cut to lap over and fit each other.


SCORE (Scoring)

Marking with lines, scratches, and grooves across a material with an instrument, for the purpose of roughening the surface.


SCOTIA

A concave moulding.


SCREED


SCREEN

Any construction (permanent or temporary), in the nature of a protective partition which covers a portion of a building, room, or other space from direct influence or observation.


SCREENINGS

The coarse part of the mortar or concrete mix (i.e. aggregate) within a certain range of size determined by screens.


SCRIBING

Cutting a piece of timber (e.g. a moulding), to fit the profile of another to which it is to be fitted.


SCRIM

Hessian, sisal, or other similar material, with coarse texture to allow it to be trowelled into the first coat; in fibrous plastering, the term refers to sisal or other fibre placed over a joint through which liquid plaster is poured and allowed to spread over the joint.


SCRIMMED JOINT

A joint where sisal, hemp or similar fibre is incorporated as a reinforcement in forming a flush joint in fibrous plastering. (See FLUSH JOINT)


SCRUB BOARD

See SKIRTING


SCUPPER

Wall outlet for drainage or overflow of water from a floor for flat roof.


SCUTCHEON

See ESCUTCHEON


SEAL

To form an impervious, inert film over a porous or chemically active surface say the application of a suitable preparation.


SEAMED

Folded over, e.g. an edge folded over to strengthen it. The most common folding is either single or do able. In seamed joint two pieces of sheet metal are joined by folding adjacent edges together.


SEASONING

Eliminating excess moisture from timber by air or kiln varying.


SECONDARY BEAM

A beam carried by main beams and transmitting loads to them.


SECRET NAILING

Driving nails in such a way that the holes are concealed (e.g. through the tongue in T& G boarding).


SECTION

A drawing showing interior details of a structure, presupposing , the building is cut through vertically.


SECTION, Material

Building material formed to a definite cross section but of unspecified length.


SELF-CLOSING FIRE DOOR

A door normally closed at all times and so designed as to close automatically when it is opened.


SELF-CONTAINED AIR-CONDITIONER

A factory made assembly of a fan, an evaporator, and a condensing unit or absorption refrigeration unit, with a suitable frame and enclosure, interconnecting piping and wiring, and approved control and safety devices.


SELF-SUPPORTING WALL

See NON-BEARINGWALL


SEPTICTANK

Tank used to dispose of sewage when a building is isolated from or cannot be connected to a sewerage system, the sewage being liquefied and purified by bacteria. The excess or overflowing liquid is known as the 'effluent'.


SERIES CIRCUIT

An electrical circuit in which the same current flows through all the devices.


SERVICE CORE

The mechanical core of a building usually combined with the core containing other services (e.g. lifts, electrical).


SERVICE CUT-OUT

A cut-out or other device installed by an electric supply authority to automatically interrupt the supply to an installation in the case of excessive current or earth leakage.


SERVICE LINE

Any conductor or group of conductors through which electrical energy may be supplied by the supply authority to a consumer.


SERVICE PIPE

A pipe which connects a structure with a water or gas main.


SERVICE RISER

A pipe or service which rises to supply an upper floor.


SERVICES


Supply or distribution pipes for cold or hot water,steam,or gas; also power cables, telephone cables, lift machinery, transformers, drains, ventilation ducts, and so on.


SERVICE STAIR

Any stair intended for service or emergency only.


SETTING

A trowelled finishing coat of lime putty and or plaster off Paris.


SETTLEMENT

A term for lowering of any part of a structure,due to the use of unseasoned timber, skimping in material, the weakness of the foundation, or settlement of earth, sewage Any waste material carried away by a sewer.


SEWER

In plumbing, a pipe of closed channel for carrying away sewage, or waste water from industrial plants for sanitary purposes.


SEWERAGE

System of sewage disposal.


SHEATHED CABLE

In electricity, a wire or cable which is protected from injury by an outside covering.


SHEATHING

Outer casing or sheeting of a building.


SWEATNING PAPER

Insulating paper between the sheathing and outer wall of a building. Same as building paper,


SHEET

To cover with a sheet material.


SHEET, Frieze

In fibrous plaster a wall sheet extending from picture rail or door height to ceiling, generally the fault length of the wall. (See FRIEZE)

Wall: In fibrous plaster a sheet for fixing on a wall and extending from floor to picture rail or roof height, generally the full length of the wall.


SHEET GLASS

Glass forms in flat sheets and annealed.


SHEETING

Flat sheets of material to protect or cover a building framework


SHELLAC

A wood finishing material consisting of a purified form of lac, used extensively in the making of varnishes and is usually white or orange in colour.


SHELL END (Hip Starter)

A special ridge tile with one end formed with a semi-circular or ornamental finish, cased to terminate the lower end of hip ridging. (See RIDGING)


SHIM

Is used where fine adjustment is required e.g. double windows of control tower cabins. Can be either very fine U type washers usually brass of wedge shaped.


SHINGLES

Thin pieces of wood, or other material, oblong in shape and thinner at one end, used for covering roofs of walls.


SHIPLAP

Timber that is edge dressed to make a close rebated of lapped joint.


SHOE

See BOOT


SHOE PIECE

A short piece of pipe fixed to the bottom of a down pipe at an angle to divert the water away from the building or into the stormwater drains.


SHOOT

To plane an edge truly and evenly.


SHOP DRAWING

Drawing produced by specialist sub-trade to explain the manufacture of any item which needs to be fabricated for the construction.


SHORING


SHUTTER

Framed cover or screen used externally for windows.


SHUTTERING

See FORMS


SIDING SHINGLES

Shingles which can be used as the exterior side wall covering of a structure.


SILL (cill)

The horizontal member at the bottom of a window frame.


SINGLE-PITCH ROOF

A roof which slopes only one waye e.g. skillion).


SINKING

A recess.


SITE

Ground on which a building stands, stood or is to stand in relation to its environment.


SIZE


SIZES, Stock

Articles produced in sizes that have become standard by use and agreement in the building industry e.g. doors,windows and structural timbers).


SKELETON CONSTRUCTION

Building in which all external and internal loads and stresses are transmitted to the foundations by a rigidly connected framework of metal or reinforced concrete. The enclosing walls are supported by the frame at designated intervals, usually at each storey.


SKELETON CORE

The hidden internal frame of a hollow-core door.


SKEW NAIL

The driving of nails on a slant or obliquely.


SKILLION OR LEAN-TO-ROOF

A roof sloping in one direction only. See also 'LEAN-TO


SKIM COAT

The finishing coat consisting of plaster of Paris to which fine white sand may be added. the surface is finally polished to a glazed finish with a trowel,


SKIRTING

Trim fixed on a wall at its junction with the floor


SKIRTING BLOCK

A block used to form a junction between skirting and architraves usually of greater thickness.


SKYLIGHT

A window in a roof generally with the same slope as the roof


SLAB

Flat thin piece of any material such as stone, marble or concrete.


SLAB FLOOR


SLACK

A looseness in a fitting or a structural member which must be removed to insure proper construction.


SLAG CEMENT

Artificial cement made by chilling slag from blast furnaces in water there, mixing and grinding the granulated slag with lime, a process which produces cement with hydraulic properties.


SLAG CONCRETE

Concrete in which blast-furnace slag is used as an aggregate. Relatively light in weight, slag concrete is used because of its fire-resistant properties, as well as for its insulating qualities against cold and sound.


SLAG ROOFING GRANULES

Air cooled slag used in built-up roofs in conjunction with bituminous material


SLAG SAND

Any fine slag product, grade and used as fine aggregate in mortar of concrete.


SLAG WOOL

A material made by blowing steam through fluid sag, used for insulating purposes.


SLAKE

To mix quick lime with water.


SLAKED LIME

See 'LIME Paste


SLATE TILES

Roofing and floor tiles made from splitting slate rock.


SLATES

Rooting material made from slate which has a laminated structure capable of being split into thin pieces.


SLEEPER PIER

See PIER, Sleeper


SLEEPER WALL

A foundation wall beneath the floor of a building used to support bearers, joists or floor stab.


SLIP

A member of small cross section, fitting into a groove, eg. two boards wit grooved edges can be jointed together by inserting a slit into the grooves.


SLIP JOINT

A joint so designed that movement of the units joined by expansion or contraction, is possible without affecting structural soundness or stability.


SLOW-BURNING INSULATION

Insulation that chars or burns without a flame or blaze.


SLUMP CONE

A mould into which concrete to be tested by the 'Slump Test' is placed and is of standard construction in the form of a cone.


SLUMP TEST

The test for determining the desired work ability of concrete and the necessary amount of water in the mix by the measurement of the settlement or slump of the concrete sample being tested.


SMOKE CURTAIN

A device which separates zones of a building to prevent the spread of smoke.


SMOKE DOOR

A door set comprising:


SOAKER

A type of ashing shaped to lie on the roof covering and turned up against the wall abutment which then requires to be 'overflashed'.


SOCKET, Pipe

See 'PIPE, Socketted


SOFFIT

The lower face or under-surface of anything (e.g. the under-face of an arch, the underside of the eaves of a roof).


SOFT SOLDER OR WIPING METAL

An alloy of 1 part tin and 2 parts lead, used fof wiped joints. (See also 'JOINT, Wiped)


SOLDER

A tin-lead alloy used for joints in galvanized iron, copper.


SOLDIER COURSE

A course of bricks with each brick laid on its end so that its greatest dimension is vertical.


SOLID CORE DOOR

A door made up with n completely continuous core of material between the external sheathing.


SOLID PARTITION

A partition which has no cavity.


SOUND ABSORPTION

In acoustics, that property of a material which reduces echoes (reverberation) within the room. It has little effect on the passing of sound through a wall or floor, except in so far as it reduces the sound within the room. The absorption of sound by the materials of partitions or wall coverings is made use of to improve the acoustical properties of rooms. The reverberation period of a room is reduced when it is filled with such absorbent objects as soft furnishings or human beings, or by cutting openings, particularly windows, in the walls.


SOUNDING BOARD

A board with a reflecting surface, above a stage, pulpit or rostrum to give distinctness to and direct the sound towards the audience.


SOUNDPROOFING

Application of deadening material, to walls, ceilings, and floors to prevent sound from passing through these members into other rooms.


SOUND-REDUCTION FACTOR OR ACOUSTICAL REDUCTION

A value in decibels which gives a measure of the reduction in intensity of the sound of any given frequency which passes through a wall. lt is found that the sound-reduction factor can be increased by5 decibels if the weight of the wall is doubled.


SOUTHLIGHT ROOF

See NORTHLIGHT ROOF


SPACE, Ablution

The sum of the floor areas of bathroom, W.C. and laundry.

Access: In multi-unit dwellings, the sum of floor are as occupied by stairs and balconies used for access to all floors.

Circulation: The floor area of the space required for internal circulation between the various rooms of the house which includes halls, passages and all cupboards accessible therefrom

Sleeping: The sum of the floor areas of all bedrooms and sleepouts, including all cupboards and wardrobes accessible therefrom.

Utility: The floor area of the space set aside for utility storage space, as distinct from cupboards.

Wall: That area occupied by the thickness of the walls and partitions including doorways) of a house. In the case of houses with two or more storeys he wall space for each floor is considered separately.


SPACE GRID

See 'GRID, Space


SPACE HEATING

The heating of the area within a building by direct or indirect heating.


SPACER

In timber framing for concrete work, a member, generally of metal, inserted between the two sides of the form work to keep them apart at the required distance.


SPALL


SPAN, Clear

The clear horizontal distance between the supports of an arch, beam, truss or roof.


SPANDREL


SPATTER DASH

A rich mixture of cement and sand dashed onto a concrete or brick surface to provide a key for subsequent coats.


SPECIFICATION

A written document containing details of work to be done and materials to be used in the construction of a building.


SPIGOT

That end of a pipe that fits into the socketted end of the adjoining pipe.


SPIKE

A large sized nail (usually steel) used as a fastener for heavy timber.


SPIRAL STAIRS

A staircase which is circular in plan, consisting entirely of winders or wedgeshaped steps.


SPLAY

A bevelled surface – See RAIL, splayed


SPLICE

A joint where two pieces of wood are connected by overlapping them and secured by plates on opposite sides and bolted together.


SPLINE

A loose strip of timber fitting into grooves on adjacent members and thus preventing relative sideways movement of the members.


SPRIG

A small brad or pin to keep glass in position, prior to the application of face putty.


SPRINKLER SYSTEM

A fire-extinguishing system consisting of pipes installed in the ceiling throughout the building. The lower end of the branch is sealed with a plug of metal or plastic which melts at a predetermined temperature so that water is released from the sprinkler when the temperature is reached. Sprinklers may be 'wet' or 'dry'. The dry sprinkler is fitted with upward-turned sprays, its pipes filled with air at a pressure with the water only admitted to the pipes when the air is released from them. The wet sprinkler is permanently filled with water, and operates more quickly when there is a fire. Also available is an on-off sprinkler which is thermostatically controlled.


SPROCKET

A vertical framing member in boxed eaves construction.


SQUARE

Term indicating that two surfaces are at right angles.


SQUARE AND FLAT

Flat panel within a frame and without a moulding.


SQUARED SPLICE

A type of spliced joint especially designed to resist tension. The pieces to be joined are cut to fit into each other and reinforced with a fish plate.


STABLISED EARTH

Prepared earth, to which is added a stabilising agent such as Portland cement or bituminous cold emulsion. Used either in 'rammed in situ' or in block construction. (See also 'ADOBE' and 'PISE'.)


STABILITY

The resistance of a structure to sliding, overturning, or collapsing.


STABLE DOOR

A door divided horizontally,so that lower section can be closed and fastened while the upper part remains open.


STACK

In plumbing, any vertical line of soil, waste, combined waste or vent piping.


STAGGERED PARTITION

A construction used to soundproof walls made by using two rows of studding, one row supporting the material on one side of the wall, and the other row supporting the material on the other side of the wall with the two sides separated by sound deadening material.


STAGING

The same as scaffolding.


STAIN AND VARNISH

A finish produced when woodwork is first stained and then finished with one or more coats of varnish.


STAINLESS STEEL

A hard, tough steel containing a high percentage of chromium, sometimes with the addition of nickel or copper.


STAIR


STAIR BUILDER'S TRUSS

A pair of crossed beams to support the staircase landing.


STAIRCASE

A flight of steps leading from one floor or storey to another above and includes landings, newel posts, handrails, and Balustrades.


STAIR FLIGHT

A run of stairs or steps between landings.


STAIR HALL

The space containing a stair.


STAIR RISER

See 'RISER


STAIR TREADS

See TREAD


STAKING OUT

The layout of a building plan by driving stakes into the ground showing the location of the foundation and building lines.


STANCHION

A column.


STANDARD FIRE TEST

The fire-resistance test of structures setout in Australian Standard No. A3O 1g58as amended from time to time. Fire Tests on Building Materials and Structures.)


STANDING PANEL

A door panel whose height is greater than its width.


STAND-PIPE

A vertical branch in a water service, provides with a tap and used to supply water for external purposes.


STARTING BOARD

The first board nailed in position at the bottom of a foundation form.


STEEL FRAME CONSTRUCTION

Building in which the structural members are of steel or dependent on a steel frame for support.


STIFFENER

Steel angles, plates, bars, rods, or other material secured to structural members to strengthen joints, and to prevent buckling in any part of the building.


STILE

The outer vertical member of a panelling, door or window.


STILES, Meeting

The two middle stiles of a pair of doors or casement windows.


STIRRUPS

In reinforced concrete beams vertical or inclined rods to resist shear stress.


STONEWARE

Ceramic material fired to low porosity.


STOOL

In reinforced concrete, a support for the bottom reinforcement to ensure adequate cover.


STOP

To fill blemishes in work to be painted, e.g. nail holes, cracks,to bring them to an even surface after the application of the first of priming coat in timber work generally and prior to painting in plaster work.


STOP Weatherboard

Timber member fixed vertically on internal and external angles of timber framed houses, against which the weatherboarding may be butted.


STOP-COCK

A fitting placed in a water service by means of which the flow of water to any part or parts of the service may be shut off.


STOP END

The closed end of a length of spouting or eaves guttering.


STOPPING

See STOP


STOREY

That portion of a building situated between any floor level and the floor level next above it; if there is no floor level above, that portion between the floor level and the ceiling above it.


STOREY ROD

A rod used to measure during construction the vertical heights of brick courses, and doors, windows and other openings. Prepared at the start of the job to ensure uniformity of heights throughout.


STOREYS

The number of storeys in a building is the number of main floors above ground level including the Ground Floor but excluding penthouses or machine or plant rooms above the main roof level. Basements Below ground level should be stated separately (e.g. 2B + 12 Storeys).


STORM DOOR

Additional door for protection against inclement and or winter weather.


STORM MOULDING

The moulding fixed in the internal angle formed by a door or window frame and the reveal in an opening of an external wall.


STORM SASH

An additional sash placed at the outside of a window for protection against severe weather.


STRAIGHT EDGE

A length of timber with the sides and edges even and true, and the edges parallel; used for trueing and levelling work. (See RULE.)


STRAINING PIECE

A short piece of timber fixed to rafters and used to hold the ends of struts in place.


STRAP

A strip of metal used to attach, secure or otherwise fasten one object to another le.g. to support a ceiling joist from a hanging beam).


STRAP, Cover

A strip of material (e.g timber or asbestos cement) used to cover joints between wall or ceiling sheets. Known in South Australia as a 'mould cover'.


STRETCHER

A brick laid with its length along the wall. (See 'BONDING'.)


STRETCHER BOND

See BONDING


STRIKING PLATE

A metal plate screwed to the door jamb of a door such that when the door is being closed, the bolt of the lock strikes against, and finally engaging in a hole in the plate.


STRINGER

see HANGING BEAM


STRINGS

In stair construction, the timber members used to support the steps at each side.


STRUCTURAL GRID

See GRID, Structural


STRUCTURAL TIMBER

Timber which is 50mm or more in thickness and100mm or more in width, intended for use where working stresses are required.


STRUCTURE

A structure Is not necessarily roofed whereas a building must be.


STRUCTURE, Party

Any partition wall or floor used for the purpose of separating storeys or rooms in separate occupancies.


STRUT

An inclined structural member in compression.


STRUTTING BEAM

In roof framing where there is an absence of walls from which to strut the under purlins, strutting beams are provided spanning between partitions and the under purlins are strutted from these strutting beams.


STUCCO

A process of cement rendering external walls.


STUD PARTITION

A partition built of studs.


STUDS OR STUDDING

The vertical members in the wall framework of a building


STUDS, Door and Window

Vertical timbers fixed on each side of door or window openings in framework, generally thicker than ordinary studs.


STUMP Pier

A vertical member of timber or precast concrete sunk into the ground and used to support a floor or wall framework – See 'PIER


SUB-BASEMENT

The second storey below the ground, the storey below the basement


SUB-CIRCUIT, Final

An electric branch circuit originating at a distribution board or other distributing centre to which consuming devices are directly connected.


SUB-FLOOR

A wooden or concrete floor which carries load but is not seen, being covered by a finish of other material.


SUB-FRAME


SUB-MAINS

Electric cables included in that portion of an installation between the main switchboard and any distribution board.


SUB-STATION

A room or building containing electrical equipment such as switches, usually with transformers to reduce high-voltage incoming power to a voltage at which the consumer can conveniently use it. It may be provided by the electricity authority or by the consumer.


SUBSTRUCTURE

The lower portion of a structure forming the supports for the superstructure of a building.


SULLAGE

The waste liquids discharged from all plumbing fixtures excluding water closets and urinals. See 'SEPTIC TANK


SUMP

A pit generally constructed with the floor below the level of the outlet pipe and designed for the disposal of stormwater or sullage.


SUMP-PUMP

A pump of small capacity for occasionally emptying a sump in a part of a building which is below the level of the drains.


SUPERSTRUCTURE

Part of a structure which is carried upon any main support e.g. a foundation wall


SUPPLY MAIN

A main line of any supply authority.


SURFACE

Face of a material.


SURVEYING

The science of measuring land.


SURVEY OF LOT

A plan or map of a lot showing the elevations and character of the ground surface on which a structure is to be erected.


SUSPENDED CEILINGS

See 'Ceiling, suspended or false


SUSPENDED CONCRETE SLAB

A slab spanning between supporting walls or posts.


SWAN NECK BEND

A double curve formed in a pipe end sometimes fitted from the thimble to the top of the downpipe. See 'THIMBLE


SWITCH, Double-Pole

A switch suitable for making or breaking an electric circuit on two poles (or phases) simultaneously. (See 'SWITCH, multipole, single-pole'.)

Flush: A switch constructed so that portion may be inserted in a weal, architrave, etc. leaving the face of the switch flush with the surface.

Master: Switch controlling a complete electric installation, or a self contained portion of an installation; a switch controlling or limiting the operation of a group of switches.

Multi-Pole: A switch suitable for making or breaking an electric circuit on two or more poles (phases) simultaneously. (See also 'SWITCH, single-pole, double pole'.)

Single-Pole: A switch suitable for making or breaking an electric circuit on one pole (or phase) only. See also 'SWITCH, multi pole, DOUBLE-POLE'.)


SWITCHBOARD

Electric switchgear with or without fuses or instruments which includes distribution boards, but does not include groups of switches in final sub-circuits where each switch has its own insulating base and protective covering.


SWITCH BOARD, Main

The switchboard from which is controlled the whole supply to an installation or to an independently metered portion of an installation, and at which submains or final sub-circuits originate.


SWITCHES, Linked

Switches linked together mechanically so as to operate simultaneously or in definite sequence.

Two-Way: Switches wired in pairs or placed so that an electric outlet or point can be controlled from either switch.


SWITCHGEAR

Apparatus for controlling the distribution of electrical energy,or for controlling and protecting circuits, machines, transformers and other apparatus.


SWIVEL

A coupling which allows either half of a mechanism to rotate independently.


SYSTEM, Reference

A system of points, lines and planes of which the dimensions and positions of a Building component, assembly or element may be related. (See 'ASSEMBLE', 'COMPONENT', 'ELEMENT', 'PLANE'.)


SYSTEM BUILDING

A method of building in which the means of construction and the components used are largely or completely determined before the design of a project.






29