building terms r



RACKING

Carrying up a portion of a masonry wall to a greater height than the remainder. The difference in level is taken up by a series of steps, each one course high, to facilitate bonding of courses subsequently added.


RADIANT HEATING

A heating system using the floor, ceiling, or walls, as heating panels.


RAFTER - Common

In roof construction, a timber framing member providing the principal support for the roofing material.

Cripple: A rafter connecting hip and valley.

Crippled Jack: A rafter connecting end of ridge to valley.

Hip: A rafter following the lie of the external intersection of two roof surfaces.

Hip Creeper: A rafter connecting wall plate and hip.

Jack: A rafter that abuts against the end of a ridge or fits in the intersection of two hips.

Principal: The upper timbers in a truss having the same inclination as the common rafters.

Valley: A rafter following the line of the internal intersection of two roof surfaces. .

Valley Creeper: A rafter connecting ridge and valley.


RAGGLE

In masonry, a unit provided with a groove into which metal flashing is fitted of to receive adjoining material.


RAIL

A piece of timber or metal extending from one post to another, as in fences, balustrades, staircases, etc, in joinery framing and panelling, the horizontal members are called rails, e.g. in doors, top rail, lock rail, bottom rail.

Angle: A rail,sometimes used in fencing,obtained by diagonally cutting square timber, thus forming a triangular cross section.

Bevel: See 'RAIL, Splayed

Chair: A rail placed on a wall face at chair back height to prevent damage to a wall.

Hand: A length of timber or other material placed at a convenient height as a guide and support for the hand, e.g. the hand rail of stairs.

Meeting: The two rails in a pair of double hung sashes which meet when closed at of near the centre of the frame. (See at so 'WINDOW, doublehung')

Picture: A rail, plain of moulded, fixed to a wall of a room at or above door head height.

Plate: A rail placed on flat, supported by and projecting beyond a similar rail fixed on the face of the wall.

Splayed or a bevel: A length of timber with one face cut at an angle other than 90°.


RAIN WATER HEAD

A shaped funnel used for the collection of roof water and placed between gutter and down-pipe.


RAINWATERPIPE

See DOWNPIPES


RAKE

The inclined portion or slope of a cornice or roof.


RAKE OR RAKING BOND

The courses of brick laid in an angular or diagonal fashion.


RAKE JOINT

See JOINT, Raked


RAM

To compact or consolidate, e.g. the consolidation of earth around fence posts, footings. (See also 'PUDDLEl


RAMMED EARTH

See PISÉ CONSTRUCTION


RAMP

An inclined passage or pathway. See also 'PREFERRED angle


RANDOM BOND

Masonry in which the stones are laid in a hit and miss bond. See also 'WALL, Rubble


RANGED RUBBLE

See RUBBLE MASONRY


RATWALL Rat Baffle wall)

Required under the Health Regulations in Queensland: a perimeter wall around all concrete slabs poured on the ground and extending some distance under the ground to prevent nesting of rats under the concrete slab.


REBATE (Rabbet)

A step-shaped reduction cut along an edge or face or projecting angle of wood.


REBATED, Double

A material moulded to provide a recess on both sides of the same face, as for the fitting of doors or windows. See also 'REBATE)


REEDING

General term applied to various kinds of ornamental moulding (e.g. a small convex of semi cylindrical moulding resembling a reed).


REFERENCE GRID

See GRID, Reference


REFERENCE PLANE

See PLANE, Reference


REFERENCE SYSTEM

See SYSTEM, Reference


REFLUX VALVE

Valve to prevent backwardflow.


REINFORCED

To strengthen by th addition of new or extra material e.g reinforced concrete, steel rods are embedded to give additional strength.


REINFORCED CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION

Building construction in which the principal structural members are made of concrete which is poured around isolated steel bars, or steel meshwork, in such a way that the two materials act together.


REINFORCING FABRIC

Prefabricated steel reinforcement for concrete,consisting of an oblong of square mesh of parallel steel wires welded at points of contact and manufactured in fiat sheets or rolls.


REINFORCING STEEL

Steel bars of various sizes and shapes used in concrete construction for giving added strength.


RENDERING, Cement

The covering of a wall surface with one or more coats of cement mortar.


RESIN (Gum arabic)

Gummy substance obtained from the secretions of certain trees and plants and used extensively in the manufacture of plastic materials.


RETAINING WALL

Any wall subjected to lateral pressure other than wind pressure and built to retain material.


RETICULATE

To divide, mark,or construct so as to form a net work.


RETURN

A term denoting that a feature has been continued at another angle.


RETURN PIPE

The pipe by which the water leaves the hot-water cylinder and returns to the boiler in a water-heating system.


REVEAL

The thickness of wall from the wall face to the door or window frame. The remainder of the thickness of wall is known as the 'jamb'.


REVERBERATION PERIOD (Reverberation Time)

The period of time, in seconds required for sound of a certain frequency to degrease, after the source is silenced, to one millionth of its initial value, or by 60 decibels. It depends mainly on the volume and the absorption of the room. The higher the absorption, the lower the reverberation period.


REVETMENT A facing of masonry or concrete on an embankment or rampart.


REVOLVING DOOR

A door with vanes operating in a cufvedf rame and mounted on a central vertical axis about which it revolves.


RIB

A ridge along a surface serving to support or strengthen onto provide a decorative feature.


RIDGE

The highest paft of the roof of a building at the meeting of the upper end of the rafters.


RIDGE BOARD

A board on edge running the length of a roof, etween the tops of the common rafters.


RIDGING

Moulded sectionfixed over the apex of a ridge or hip in a foof to provide a continuous cover at the intersection of the two roof slopes. (See 'Hlp', 'RIDGE'.)


RIDGE VENT

A ventilation device in the top of a roof. lt can be a covered opening at ends of a ridge or be a part of the ridge raised to provide an airflow to and from the roofspace.


RIGHT HAND DOOR

Door which swings from or towards you with the lockor latch on your right hand side, when you face the doorfromthe outside.


RIGNT HAND STAIRWAY

Stairswhere the handrail is on the right as you ascend the stairs.


RIM LOCK

A lock finished with a rim or casing for fixing to the surface of a door or gate.


RING MAIN

Referred to a service which 'rings' a buildingenabling connection at any point. Also a service which 'rings' a floor of a building.


RISE

The distance though which anything rises (e.g. the rise of a stair, the rise of a roof).


RISER

Thevertical board under the tread of a stair.


RISING CAIN

An electrical power supplycable, gasmain,or water supply pipe which passes up though one or more storeys of a building.


RIVETS

Bolts or pins made of soft metal used to fasten two plates (usually metal) together.


ROLLS

Wooden battens with a rounded upper surface fixed on a roof in the direction of the slope to provide thesupport for raised joints between runs of sheet metal roofing. Used mainly on nearly flat roofs oven.



ROCK

Bulk excavation work: In bulk excavation work, the nature of the ground shall be classified as 'other than rock or boulders', 'soft rock' and 'hard rock'.

Other than rock or boulders refers to material which can be excavated by hand or mechanical means without the use of a ripper.

Soft rock refers to materials which can be excavated by mechanical means involving the use of ripper, ripping if necessary in two directions and using equipment operated by a tractor of 'D9' class or equivalent, provided that such rock cannot be excavated without the use of a ripper. Material which is cleanly established as not passing the test as described for 'other than rock of boulders' will also be accepted in this category.

Hard rock refers to material which cannot be excavated by means other than blasting or pneumatic tools.

Trench, pit and column base excavation: In trench, pit and column base excavation work, the nature of the ground shall be classified as 'rock', 'boulders' and 'other than rock or boulders'.

Rock in excavations for trenches and column bases is defined as all rock found in ledges or masses in its original position which can be removed only by the use of blasting or pneumatic tools.

Other than rock in excavations for trenches and column bases shall include all materials to be excavated and not covered by the definition of 'rock'.

Boulders shall mean portions of 'rock' disassociated from their parent source.


ROLL CAPPED

Ridge tiles finished with a roll or cylindrical projection along the apex.


ROLLED STRIP ROOFING

Any roofing material which comes from the dealers in rolls.


ROOF, Lean-to

See 'SKILLION', 'LEAN-TO


ROOF FRAMING

The parts of a roof, such as rafters, ridge and plates- See also 'FRAMEWORK


ROOF GUTTER

See GUTTER, roof or eaves


ROOFING

The material put on a roof to make it water tight.


ROOFING NAIL

Heavy nail with a large head, designed for use in attaching roofing material.


ROOF SHEATHING

Boarding nailed on roof rafters and over which roofing is laid.


ROOF TIES

Tension members, fastened to rafters above the pate line, to prevent walls and roof from spreading (e.g. ceiling joists, collar ties). See 'TIE, collar


ROOF TRUSS

A truss providing structural support for a roof.


ROOF ZONE HEIGNT

See 'HEIGHT, Roof Zone


ROSIN

Resin in solid form which is used extensively as a soldering flux and in varnishes and paints.


ROSTRUM

A platform for public speaking.


ROT, Dry

A fungus disease in timber mainly caused by poor ventilation, in which the fibres of the timber are reduced to a dry powdery dust.


ROT, Wet

A fungus disease in timber caused by excessive and continuous dampness, that results in the decomposition of the timber fibres


ROTUNDA

A circular building or hall usually covered by a dome.


ROUGHCAST

External finish to a wall surface obtained by mixing bluestone toppings or pebbles, sand and cement to a creamy consistency and casting, or throwing, the aggregation on to the surface.


ROUGH FLOOR

A subfloor base for the laying of the finished floor material.


ROUGH HARDWARE

The concealed hardware in a building (eg. bolts, nails, and spikes).


RUBBED EFFECT

A dull finish produced by rubbing a varnished or shellacked surface with powdered pumice stone and water.


RUBBLE

Rough broken stones or bricks used to fill in courses of walls or for other filling.


RUBBLE CONCRETE

Concrete reinforced by broken stones (e.g solid masonry dams).


RUBBLE MASONRY (Rubblework)

Masonry built of rough fragments of broken, unsquare a or rudely dressed stones, irregular in size and shape. When only the roughest irregularities are removed, it is sometimes called SCABBLED RUBBLE, and when the stones in each course are roughly dressed to almost a uniform height, it is often called RANGED RUBBLE.


RUBBLEWALL

See WALL, rubble


RULE

A long straight edge used to straighten, measure or level the work.


RUN (Runningng)

See 'LINEAR


RUN

The act of producing or forming lengths of moulding, flooring.


RUNNING

The preparation of rocklime for putty.


RUNNING DIMENSIONS

A series of dimensions starting from zero and incrementally dimensioning features of portion of a building or site.


RUSTICATED

The treatment of a stone wall, where separate blocks are left with a rough hewn surface projecting from the line of the joints, which are deeply recessed in chamfered or rectangular grooves. Also applied to weatherboards.




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