building terms p



P.V.C. (Polyvinyl Chloride)

A widely used plastic-the main uses include water pipes, waste pipes and flooring.


PAD STONE

A bearing stone in a wall under a girder or other beam or as a lintel to distribute the weight or pressure of the load above.


PAINT

Paint is usually a colored liquid laid on the surfaces of building materials by a brush, roller or spray gun, drying as an impervious coat to protect the material covered from the effects of the atmosphere and for decorative purposes.

Aluminum: Aluminum powder suspended in a medium, spirit varnish or oil varnish. (See VARNISH'.)

Cement: Cement-based paint with the addition of suitable pigments.

Cold Water: Paints made with a base such as kaolin, whiting or casein, and in some cases, oil-bound.

Enamel: Glossy finish paints providing a hard-wearing surface.

Latex: Paints under this broad category include styrene co-polymers, polyvinyl acetate, acrylics and other similar polymerised film forming organic polymers in emulsion form. Reference should be made to A.S.K.122-1964. 'Latex Paints for interior and

Exterior Use.


PAINT - Oil

Materials used in the making of:

Base; the actual covering or body material. There are several bases, he most common being zinc white (zinc oxide and titanium oxide

Vehicle: the oil that is mixed with the base to allow the latter to be spread or brushed thinly. Linseed oil either raw or boiled, is the best and most widely used vehicle, Certain nut oils are also used.

Solvent or thinner: a volatile oil to thin the paint. Turpentine or substitutes manufactured from mineral oil are the most common thinners They also have drying properties.

Driers: materials added to accelerate the drying. the material most commonly used is terebene.

Pigment or Stainers: colouring mediums, mainly ochres or oxides, generally ground in oil.

Ready Mixed: Manufactured ready for use as distinct from. site preparation from raw materials.


PAINTER'S PUTTY

A plastic substance composed of a mixture of whiting and linseed oil and sometimes including white lead, used for fixing panes of glass in window frames and to fill nail holes and defects in wood before applying paint or enamel


PAIR (Duplex)

Dwellings with a common wall, called a party wall


PALINGS

Pieces of rough sawn or split timber about 18 mm thick used for fencing etc.


PALLADIAN WINDOW

A window composed of a main window having an arched head, and on each side a long narrow window with a square head,


PANE

Single piece of glass in a window or door.


PANEL

An area on a wall, celling, raised above or sunk below the general surface; a piece of wood framed within four other pieces of wood, as in the styles and rails of a door, but often applied to the whole square frame and the sinking itself, in fencing, a section or infilling between two posts


PANELHEATING

See PANEL RADIATOR


PANEL RADIATOR

A heating unit which js place a either flush with. or n. a flat surface.


PANEL WALL

A non-load bearing external wall wholly supported at each storey


PANTILE

A roofing tile curved in cross section and laid so that the joint between two concave tiles is covered by a convex tile or a tile having both a concave and convex portion and laid so that the convex portion overlaps the rim of the concave portion of an adjoining tile.


PANTRY

A room for storing provisions.


PARAPET

Low wall at the edge of a roof, balcony, bridge, or terr ace


PARGE COAT

A coarse coat of plasterwork applied over masonry as a protecttion or as a base coat (see PARGING').


PARGETTING

See PARGING


PARGING

The mortar coating of the internal surfaces of a chimney flue.


PARQUETRY

Floors of small blocks of hard wood laid to patterns and glued to a wood or concrete subfloor.


PARTICLE BOARD

Composite boards made by compressing chips, shavings and other materials


PARTING BEAD OR PARTING STRIP

Strip of bead which separates the upper and lower sash of a window, set into a groove in the jamb about one half of its width.


PARTITION CAP

The head of a partition wall.


PARTITION COVERINGS

Materials used to cover the face of partitions (e.g. timber panelling, plywood, veneered chipboard, lath and plaster, plasterboard, hardboard, insulating board, corkboard, sheet metal, asbestos cement).


PARTITION WALL

An interior non-bearing wall dividing a building into rooms.


PARTY WALL

The wall between two adjoining buildings but common to and used to the advantage of both buildings.


PATIO

A garden court, adjoining a house. Nowadays more commonly refers to any concrete slab attached to a house and used for entertaining or outdoor living.


PAVILION

A partially enclosed structure, for shelter purposes in parks, or other laces of amusement or pleasure.


PAVING

The laying of floors, paths, streets, with pavement composed of bricks, stone, concrete, asphalt or similar hard and usually impervious materials.


PEBBLE DASH

Finishing the exterior walls of a structure by dashing pebbles against the plaster.


PELMET

A valance concealing fittings (e.q. curtain rods, sliding door tracks).


PENDANT POST

A post set against the wall and resting on a corbel or other solid support which holds up the ends of a collar beam or any part of a roof.


PENDANT SWITCH

Switch hanging from the ceiling or a room by a drop cord and used to control ceiling light.


PENDENTIVE

Arch which cuts off internally the corners of a square building so the superstructure may become an octagon or dome.


PERCENTAGE EFFICIENCY

The Percentage Efficiency of a building is the 'Usable Floor Area' (U.F.A.) divided by the sum of the 'Fully Enclosed Covered Area' and the 'Unenclosed Covered Area'. 'Net Rentable Area' (N.R.A.) may be substituted for 'Usable Floor Area' when required in commercial type premises. (See 'AREA'.)


PERGOLA

An open framework over a path,terrace, or patio.


PERIMETER DIFFUSER

In air-conditioning a diffuser placed on the edge of a building (e.g. under a window, to neutralize its effect).


PERPENDS

The vertical joints in a masonry wall.


PICKET

A narrow timber member, generally shaped at the top, and fixed vertically to fence framing.


PICTURE RAIL

Moulding or rail, around the interior walls of a room near the ceiling, provided for hanging pictures.


PIER

A column or post supporting a super-structure such as floor bearers, verandahs, beams, etc.


PIER, Engaged

A pier bonded into a wall,

Sleeper: independent brick, concrete or wooden supports for floor bearers, (See also 'Stump'.)


PILASTER

Rectangular pillar attached to a wall but treated as a column with a capital, shaft, and base.


PILLAR

An upright shaft or column, relatively slender in comparison to its height.


PILLAR COCK

See BIBCOCK


PILE DRIVING MACHINERY

A mechanised device which raises and drops a heavy metal 'hammer' onto piles from a height sufficient to drive the piles into earth. The motive power is obtained from diesel engines.


PINHOLING

Holes in a sprayed-paint surface due to bubbles which persist until the film has dried.


PIPE - Agricultural Drain

Porous pipe of unglazed earthernware without sockets, used for sub-soil drainage.

Earthenware or Stoneware: Socketed vitrified clay pipe, used for drainage.

Earthenware Tested: An earthenware or stoneware pipe accepted by sewerage authorities as suitable for use in sewer drains.

Flush: A pipe conveying water from an overhead cistern for the purpose of flushing out a water closet or urinal.

Socketed: A pipe formed with an enlarged end (the faucet) to receive the unenlarged end (the spigot) of the adjoining pie.

Soil Drain: The pipe that conveys the discharge from waterclosets, urinals, and disconnector traps or gullies from the building to the sewer, usually underground.

Straight Stoneware: A plain pipe used jn the general run of a drain.


PIPE OR STACK, Soil

A pipe that conveys the discharge from water closets, urinals, to the soil drain.

Waste: Any pipe that conveys the discharge from any fixture, excepting water closets, slop sinks or urinals, to a disconnector trap or gully where a separate pipe system js used, or directly to a soil stack when a combined pipe system is installed.


PIPE BEND

A pipe made with a curve, which may be set at varying angles. The most common bends used are 45° and 90°.


PIPE SYSTEM, Combined

A type of plumbing installation in which disconnector traps or gullies are omitted and both soil and waste pipes are connected directly to a common pipe taking both soil and waste discharge, and in which a common system of venting is used for all classes of pipe.

Separate: A type of plumbing installation in which separate pipes are provided for soil and Lasted discharges and for the ventilation of soil and waste fixtures, and in which every waste pipe is connected to the drain through a disconnector trap or gully.


PISÉ

Prepared earth rammed between formwork similar to that used for poured concrete wals This provides monolithic walling. See also 'ADOBE' and 'STABILISED EARTH'.)


PIT, Soakage

See 'Sump'.


PITCH

The angle of inclination to the horizontal of a roof or stair.


PLAIN CONCRETE

A concrete mixture containing not more than two tenths of one per cent of reinforcement.


PLANE, Controlling

A plane, located in a space grid, which defines the boundary of a controlling zone or the axis of a load bearing element. (See 'ELEMENT', 'GRID, SPACE', 'ZONE'.)

Co-ordinating: A plane by reference to which one building component or assembly is coordinated with another. (See 'ASSEMBLY', 'component'.) ,

Reference: A plane in a building reference system, (See 'SYSTEM, reference'.) '


PLANK TIMBER

A wade board, usually more than 25 mm thick, laid with its wide dimension horizontal and used as a bearing surface.


PLANNING

A process by which a forward program of events is formulated.


PLANNING GRID

See 'GRID, Planning'.


PLANT


PLASTER

Material of a mortarlike consistency used for covering walls and ceilings of buildings usually made of Portland cement mixed with sand and water.


PLASTERBOARD

A rigid insulating board made of plastering material covered on both sides with heavy paper.


PLASTERING

Any calcareous compound, usually of gypsum plaster, Portland cement or lime putty and sand, that has been applied to a surface jn a plaster state and sets hard.


PLASTER OF PARIS

A term commonly applied to calcined gypsum.


PLASTIC PAINTS

Synthesised paints using a form of liquid plastic as vehicle.


PLASTICS

A chemically produced, synthetic substance which may be moulded and shaped by heat and off pressure.


PLASTIC SOILS

Soils which, having an excessive amount of clay, are readily moulded when wet, thereby requiring special footing design.


PLATE, Floor

A timber member continuously supported on brickwork and used to carry floor joists C39 (See also 'PLATES, wall').

Sole: A piece of timber or concrete placed on or in the ground to distribute the weight of a vertical loadbearing member.

Vermin or Bottom: The bottom horizontal member of a timber frame wall to which the studs are fixed.

Wall: In brick construction, timber member placed on brick or other supports to carry the floor joists, and on tops of walls to carry ceiling joists and rafters; in timber framing there are top and bottom plates, which are the top and bottom members of the framed walls.


PLATEGLASS

See GLASS, plate'.


PLENUM CHAMBER

Compartment maintained under air pressure, and connected to distributing ducts.


PLENUM SYSTEM

Air conditioning in which the air forced into the building (generally near the ceiling level) is maintained at a higher pressure than the atmosphere.


PLINTH

A slight widening and thickening at the base of a column, wall or pedestal.


PLINTHBOARD

Shaped board between the lowest weatherboard of a wall and the stump lining of a timber framed building. In timber fencing the plinth is the lowest horizontal board.


PLOUGHED

Grooved.


PLUG


PLUMB

Vertical or perpendicular.


PLY OR PLYWOOD

Two or more thin sheets of wood glued together, with the grain of adjacent layers usually at right angles to each other.


POINTING


POINT OF ATTACHMENT

The point at which an overhead service line terminates on a consumer's building or structure.


POINT OF ENTRY

The point at which the service line or the consumer's mains enter a building.


POLYSTYRENE FOAM, POLYURETNANE FOAM

Plastic material in foam form used for thermal insulation.


POLYTHENE (Polyethylene)

Widely used flexible plastic, its main use being as a moisture barrier underfloors.


PORCH

A covered entrance to a building.


PORCH, Open

A porch not completely enclosed.


PORTAL

An entranceway (e.g. a door or gate).


PORTALFRAME

Joining the rafters of a roof and wall frame together by a rigid joint such as that provided by welding.


PORTICO

An open space covered with a roof supported by columns.


PORTLAND CEMENT

See CEMENT, Portland


POST

A vertical structural member.


POWER POINT OR OUTLET

The point or outlet of the electrical circuit at which current is available for over or lighting purposes.


POWER SOCKET

An electric outlet at the terminal of a power circuit.


PRE-CAST

Poured or cast in any place other than its climate position (e.g. pre-cast units of concrete houses).


PRE-CAST CONCRETE

Concrete manufactured away from its ultimate location.


PREFABRICATED CONSTRICTION, PREFRABRICATION

The manufacture in a factory of whole or parts of buildings such as individual rooms, walls, and roofs, in contrast with the conventional construction of a building iece by piece on the site.


PREFERRED angle


PREFERRED DIMENSION

See DIMENSION, Preferred


PREMIX

To mix materials together, e.g., concrete or mortar, before being transported to the building site. The process is usually carried out in a large central depot.


PRESSURE, Electrical

The difference of potential between electric conductors.

Extra Low: Pressure normally not exceeding 32volts alternating current,or 115 volts direct current.

Low: Pressure normally exceeding 32voltsalternating current or 15 volts direct current, but not exceeding 250 volts in either case.

Medium: Pressure normally exceeding 250 volts, but not exceeding 650 volts.


PRESSURE, High

Pressure normally exceeding 650 volts, but not exceeding 6600 volts.

Extra High: Pressure normally exceeding 6600volts.


PRESSURE, Water

The force exerted by gravity at an outlet due to height differentiation between the storage and the outlet


PRIMARYFLOW-AND- RETURN PIPES

The pipes in which water circulates between boiler and cylinder in a water-heating system, the flow pipe being that by which water leaves the boiler, returning to it by the return pipe.


PRIME OR PRIMING COAT

In painting, to apply the fist or riming coat.


PRIME COST SUM

A sum allowed for and included in the contract specifications and or a Bill of Quantities by the architect to cover certain items which are subject to a later selection by the architect. The allowance made is to cover the supply and or labour of the item selected; and charges by the contractor are based on net purchase prices and are accounted for and adjusted in the final statement of accounts.


PRINCESS POSTS

Additional support posts on each side of queen posts in trusses which have relatively large spans.


PROFILE

The outline or faces of a building section, component or assembly. (See 'ASSEMBLY', 'COMPONENT', 'SECTION, material')


PROJECTION

A jutting out of any part or member of a building.


PROPERTY LINE WALL

Wall erected on or along a division or property line.


PROVISIONAL SUM

A sum set aside in the Bill of Quantities or Contract to provide for work whose scope is not clearly foreseen.


PUDDLE

To consolidate earth by adding water and ramming.


PUG

Tightly fill and pack crevices or apertures in masonry or concrete walling.


PURLOIN, Mock

A short length of timber fixed under the overhang of a gable to simulate a purlin.


PURLINS OR UNDERPURLINS


PUTLOGS

Short lengths of timber or steel used to carry the planks of a scaffold, one end being inserted in the wall, and the other end resting on the scaffold framing.


PUTTY

A 'mastic' formed by binding whiting with linseed oil. (See 'MASTIC'.)


PUTTY - Back

A layer of putty placed in the rebate of an opening to be glazed, against which the glass is pressed.

Face: The putty placed in position after an opening has been grazed.


PYLON

A gateway, a marking post, tower or other marker.