building terms d



DADO

The lower portion of a wall above the skirting when finished in contrast to the remainder of the wall.


DAIS

A platform at one end of a hall of large room raised above the level of the rest of the floor.


DAMP-PROOF COURSE

A waterproof membrane usually laid between courses of brickwork or masonry (e.g. lead-cored bituminous damp-course; asphaltic damp-course; polythene and sheet copper).


DATUM

A predetermined level on a site from which all other levels are established.


DAUBING


DEAD LEVEL

A statement used to indicate an absolutely level surface.


DEAD LOAD

A permanent, inert load on a building or other structure due to the weight of its structural members and the fixed loads they carry, which impose definite stresses and strains upon the structure.


DEADMAN'S ANCHORAGE

An immovable fixing within a system of pulleys to provide stability to the system.


DECIBEL

A unit for measuring sound intensity


DECK

The flat portion of a roof.


DEFLECTION

A deviation of a point on a member from its initial position due to an applied load.


DEFORMATION

Changing the shape (e.g. alteration in foam which a structure undergoes when subjected to the action of a weight or load).


DEFORMED BARS

Reinforcing bars made with surface deformations, such as raised ribs, to produce a better bond between the bars and the concrete.


DEHUMIDIFIER

An air-conditioning unit which cools the air below the dewpoint, and thus reduces its humidity.


DEMARCATION

A fixed line for marking a boundary limit.


DEPTH

In relation to a site, the mean distance between the front and rear boundaries. The vertical dimension below a horizontal reference plane.(See 'PLANE, Reference'.)


DESICCATE

To dry by removing the moisture content (e.g. the seasoning of timber by exposing it in an oven to a current or hot air).


DESIGN LOAD - Air-conditioning

The capacity required of air-conditioning apparatus to produce specified conditions inside when specified conditions of temperature and humidity prevail outside, and when all sources of load are taken at the maximum which then occur coincidentally.


DETAILS

In architectural design, the parts which require special consideration and explanation.


DETECTOR, Smoke or Thermal

A device such as a thermostatically controlled circuit which gives a fire alarm when activated by type and density of smoke (smoke detector) or by amount of heat (thermal detector).


DEW-POINT TEMPERATURE

The temperature corresponding to condensation or saturation (100%t relative humidity.) for a given absolute humidity at constant pressure.


DIFFUSER, Air-conditioning

An outlet into a room from a ventilating duct, provided with a damper to regulate the volume of air discharged into it.


DIFFUSER - Lighting

Clear or opaque covering to light fitting.


DIMENSION

A measure of distance.

Actual: The magnitude of a dimension found by measurement.

Controlling: A dimension between controlling planes e.g. Floor to-floor height, thickness of a controlling zone, the distance between the nearest controlling planes of adjacent controlling zones. See 'PLANE, Controlling, HEIGHT, Floor to Floor, ZONE, Controlling.

Co-ordinating: The dimension, between two co-ordinating planes, which is common to two or more building component or assemblies to permit their assembly. See ASSEMBLY, COMPONENT, PLANE, Coordinating.

Nominal: See DIMENSION, Manufacturing.

Manufacturing - Target or Nominal

The dimension used by the manufacturer of a building component or assem6ly to ensue that the actual dimension lies between the maximum dimension and the minimum dimension. See assembly, COMPONENT, DIMENSION, Actual, DIMENSION, Maximum, DIMENSION, Minimum.

Maximum: The largest permissible dimension, for either the length, width or depth, specified for the manufacture of a building component or assembly. See ASSEMBLY, COMPONENT.

Minimum: The smallest permissible dimension, for either the length, width or depth, specified for the manufacture of a building component or assembly. See ASSEMBLY, COMPONENT.

Preferred: A dimension chosen in preference to others for specific purposes.


DIMENSIONAL CO-ORDINATION

See COORDINATION, dimensional.


DIMENSION SHINGLES

Shingles cut to a uniform size as distinguished from random shingles.


DINETTE

A small dining room where space is limited.


DINING ROOM

The room in which dinner and other meals are regularly served and eaten.


DISCONTINUOUS CONSTRUCTION

Sound insulation, with minimum insulating materials, of one quiet or noisy room from its neighbours- see DOUBLE PARTI TION, STAGGERED PARTITION, FLOATING FLOOR.


DISTRIBUTED LOAD

A load spread over a surface expressed in kilograms per square metre, or along a length of member exposed in kilograms per metre.


DISTRIBUTING BOX

A box in which electrical connections may be made between branch wires and the main cable.


DISTRIBUTION BOARD

A suitably mounted assembly of electrical cutouts, with or without a switch of switches, arranged for the distribution of electricity to, and for the protection and control of submains or final sub-circuits.


DISTRIBUTION LINE

The main feed line of an electrical circuit to which branch circuits are connected.


DIVISION WALL

Wall which separates buildings or which divides space within a building into several rooms or compartments.


DOGS

Shaped wrought-iron connectors spiked at each end.


DOLLY


DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE

Architecture which deals with private buildings of a domestic nature


DOOR, Flush

A door (either hollow or solid core) both surfaces of which form a smooth plan.

Framed and Ledged: A door framed with stiles and rails with the face sheeted between of over tiles, generally with tongued and grooved boards.

Framed, Ledged and Braced: As above but with the addition of diagonal braces.

Framed and Panelled: A door consisting of a framework with thin panels inserted.

Ledged: A door formed by fixing vertical board onto horizontal members.

Ledged and braced: A ledged door with diagonal braces inserted between ledges.

Screen: A light door with an open panel of wire gauze or other screening to prevent the entry of insects into a house.


DOOR CHECK (Closer)

A mechanical| device used to make a door self closing.


DOOR FRAME

A frame into which a door is fitted.


DOORHEAD

The upper par onf the frame of a door


DOOR JAMBS

The two vertical members of a door frame


DOOR LEAVES

In wide openings, a door may be. made up into two or more individual sections or “leaves” which are hinged together.


DOOR pull

A handle designed for attaching to a door to facilitate the opening and cIosing of the door.


DOOR STOPS

Fillets fixed to door jambs to form a stop and rebate for the door.


DORMER

Window projecting through steeply pitched roof.


DOUBLE-ACTING BUTT

A type of butt hinge which allows a door to swing in either direction.


DOUBLE-ACTING HINGE

A hinge which permits first motion of a door in two directions.


DOUBLE-ACTING SPRING HINGE

A door hinge having two sets of springs which have tension in opposite directions, allowing the door to be opened and spring closed in either direction.


DOUBLE FLEMISH BOND

A bond in which both the inner and outer faces of an exposed masonry wall are laid in Flemish bond, with all headers true or full headers- See FLEMISH BOND.


DOUBLE GLAZING

A double-glass pane in a door or window, with an air space between the two panes.


DOUBLE HUNG WINDOW

A window with an upper and lower sash, each opening in the vertical plane.


DOUBLE PARTITION

A partition built from two separate rows of studs eIther for sound reduction or to form a cavity for a sliding door.


DOUBLE PITCH

Sloping in two directions (e.g. a gable roof).


DOUBLE SOLDERING AND RIVETING

The joining of two pieces of sheet iron either flat or moulded, by lapping and riveting, and soldering together on each side. See also LAP, end and LAP, side.


DOUGHBOYS

See BRICKS, callow.


DOVETAIL
A method of joínting timbers together by fitting one piece into another using male and female splayed nothings.


DOWEL

A wood of metal pin used to strengthen a joint by its insertion partly into each of the joined pieces.


DOWNPIPES

Pipes to carry roof water from eaves gutters to stormwater drains at ground level. See SHOE PIECE.


DOWN PIPE STRAPS

Straps used to secure a downpipe in position.


DRAGON BEAM

A horizontal member, attached to the foot of and in the same vertical plane as a hip rafter used to prevent thrust on the corner of a building by transmitting the load indirectly back to the structure (i.e. the rafters do not bear directly on a wall plate) and held in place by being attached to an angle brace secured to ceiling joists.


DRAIN

Any pipe, channel, or trench by means of which waste liquid is carried away.


DRAINING BOARD (Drainer)

Surface surrounding a sink.


DRAUGHT

A current of air.


DRAUGHT STOP OR FIRE STOP

Any obstruction to block the passing of flames or air currents upwards or across a building.


DRAWER SLIP

A guide or strip on which a drawer slides.


DRESSING





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