building terms c


CABLE

An insulated solid or stranded conductor, or two or more such conductors laid up together, each provided with its own insulation. The insulated conductor or conductors may have an overall protective covering.

Armoured: A cable provided with a protective wrapping of metal tapes or wires.

Flexible: A cable, the conductors, insulation and covering of which afford flexibility.


CABLE TRAY

A rectangular duct in the form of a tray in which cables or busbars travel through a building.


CAISSON


CAMBER

A convexity upon an upper surface (e.g. beam, bridge, lintel).


CANOPY

A hood or cover.


CANTILEVER

a) A projecting beam supported at one end, or a large bracket for supporting a balcony or cornice.

b) two bracketlike arms projecting toward each other from opposite piers or banks to form the span of a bridge making what is known as a cantilever bridge.


CANTILEVERED TRUSS

See TRUSS,Cantilevered


CAPPING

The uppermost part on top of a piece of work.


CAPPING BRICK

bricks which are specially shaped for capping the exposed top of a wall.


CARCASS

A building that is structurally complete but otherwise unfinished.


CARPENTRY

The producing of work or construction (either temporary or permanent) in wood other than joinery.


CARPETS

Woven fibre floor covering used for decorative and acoustic purposes.


CARRIAGE

An inclined timber joist used to support the centre of the steps in the flight of a wooden stair.


CASED

Covered with other materials, generally of a better quality or finish.

(See also 'FIRRING PIECES'.)


CASED OPENING

Any opening finished with jambs and trim, but without the finished material for the opening (e.g. Doors).


CASEMENT WINDOW

A window with the sash hinged vertically to the frame.


CASH FLOW

Schedule of times or dates at which payments for resources of all kinds are received and made, and the amounts.


CAST

To replace some plastic material in a previously constructed form


CAST IN SITU

Concrete cast or poured in its permanent position in prepared forms (e.g. concrete steps, hearth slabs, floors, beams, lintels).


CASTELLATED BEAM

A structural steel beam or girder either rolled section or built up, with portion of the web cut out to lighten the structure and provide a passage for building services.


CASTELLATION

Fortification of a building by means of battlements


CASTER

A wheel, or set of wheels, set in a swivel frame attached to the base of a piece of furniture and portable machines.


CAULKING

The water-proofing of cracks or joints in or between any materials.


CAVITY RESONATURE

Resonance of enclosed body of aif between rigid walls connected by a narrow opening to surrounding space.


CAVITY WALL

A hollow wall,usually consisting of two brick walls erected a couple of cms apart and joined together with ties of metal.


CEILING

The overhead internal lining of a room

Acoustic: Ceiling materials to absorb of reflect sound or prevent sound transference to adjacent areas.

Coved:

Suspended or False: A ceiling which is suspended from and is not in direct contact with the floor or roof construction above and generally used to conceal services. (See also 'FIRRNG PIECES'.)


CEILING JOISTS

The joists, usually acting as a tensile roof member and which support the overhead interior lining of a room of serving as floor joists for a storey above.


CEILING ROSE

A fitting from which a lamp may be suspended.(see also 'CORD, drop'.)


CEMENT- Hydraulic

A finely ground inorganic material forming, by the addition of the appropriate quantity of water, a binding paste capable of hardening both under water and in air and of binding together granular material.


CEMENT- Portland

Obtained by crushing and burning limestone in kilns, the resulting clinker being finely ground with gypsum and with the addition of various aggregates is used for many purposes (e.g. concrete, mortar).

Rubber Latex: A jointless cement floor which is flexible, due to its rubber content. The aggregate may be marble or other stone chippings or cork or wood chips which can be ground and buffed like terrazzo.

White: A white Portland cement used for white or colored surface finishes and for white or colored mortar (e.g. snd finish, stucco, terrazzo).


CEMENT MORTAR

See MORTAR


CENTERING

A temporary framework support under an arch during its construction.


CENTRAL HEATING

Heating of building from a central source either by circulating hot water or steam through pipes and radiators, or warm air through ducts.


CENTRE TO CENTRE

See ON CENTRE


CHAIN BOND

The bonding together of a stone wall by the use of a built-in chain or iron bar.


CHAIR RAIL


A wooden moulding around the wall of a room at chair-back height, to protect the wall against damage.


CHALK LINE


CHAMFER

To take off the edge or arris of any material to a small depth at an angle of about45.


CHAMFER, Stop

A chamfer that does not extend the full length of the work.


CHAMFERBOARD

A type of weatherboard.


CHANNEL


CHARRING

The process of scorching or burning a surface for construction purposes.


CHASE

A rough groove or recess cut into a masonry wall for water pipes, conduit, etc.


CHECK

In timber, the separation of the fibres along the grain forming a fissure, but not extending through the piece from face to face.


CHECKING

The cutting of a timber member to a specified depth and width suitable to receive another timber member.


CHECKRAIL

The middle horizontal member of a double-hung window (the lower rail of the top sash and the top rail of the lower sash).


CHECKSTOP

A moulding for holding the bottom sash of a double-hung window in place in a window frame.


CHIMNEY

A structure, generally of brick or stone, containing a passage through which the smoke and waste gases from a fire or furnace may escape.


CHIMNEY ARCH

The arch above a fireplace opening.


CHIMNEYBREAST

The wall containing the fireplace flue or flues, extending between floor and ceiling.


CHIMHEY CAP

A cover for a chimney which may incorporate a device to improve the draught with an exit opening to leeward.


CHIMNEY FLASHING

Metal of composition material placed around a chimney shaft to protect the roof against rainwater, or snow.


CHIMNEY FLUE

The passage provided in the chimney structure as an outlet for smoke or fumes.


CHIMNEY HEAD

The top of a chimney,


CHIMNEY HOOD

A covering for a chimney to prevent rainwater from entering the flues.


CHIMNEY JAMBS

The walls or piers on each side of a fireplace opening or stove recess.


CHIMNEY STACK

That part of a chimney that projects above the roof.


CHIMNEY THROAT

The chimney directly above the fireplace where the walls are brought close together to increase the draught.


CHIPBOARD

Sheet material used in joinery made of compressed woodchips and resin.


CHUTE

An inclined or vertical trough or tube through which articles are passed from a higher to a lower level.


CILL

See SILL


CINDER CONCRETE

A type of concrete made from Portland cement mixed with clean well-burned coal cinders as coarse aggregate.


CIRCUIT - Electrical

A path of electric current.


CIRCUIT BREAKER

A switch suitable for opening a circuit automatically under predetermined conditions.


CIRCULAR STAIR

A stairway having steps which radiate from a common centre.


CIRCULATION SPACE

A space for the movement of people, goods and vehicles within a building.


CISTERN - Flushing

Small tank to contain water for flushing a water closet pan initiated by operation of a chain, ever or other mechanical device.


CISTERN BOARD

The board to which the cistern in a water closet is a attached.


CIVIL ENGINEERING WORKS

Works comprising a structure other than a building and its associated site works such as a dam, bridge, road etc. or an operation such as dredging, dewatering, soil stabilization.


CLADDING

Any material used to face a building or structure.


CLASS OF . OCCUPANCY

The classification of the building as to use.


CLEANOUT

A unit with removable plate or plug in plumbing or other drainage pipes for cleaning out extraneous material.


CLEAR

Free from all visible defects and imperfections.


CLEAT

A small piece of timber fixed to larger, as a bearing block.


CLEAT HOOK

A fitting with projections at top and bottom used to secure chains and ropes (e.g. for clothes lines, verandah blinds).


CLERESTORY

The portion of a muti-storey room extending above the single storey height containing windows for lighting and ventilation purposes.


CLERK OF WORKS

Supervisor of a building project, employed by the architect or the building owner, to ensure that the architect's plans are followed accurately and that workmanship is of an appropriate quality.


CLOSED STAIRWAY

A stairway which is completely closed on both sides by walls.


CLOSED STRING STAIRS

Stairs in which the treads are not visible in a side view of the staircase.


CLOSER


CLOSET

A small room or compartment e.g. watercloset


CLOTHES CHUTE

See CHUTE


CLOUT

A nail, usually galvanised, with a flat circular head.


COACH SCREWS

Similar to a wood screw except that the heads are square or hexagonal so that they can be turned by a spanner. They are often used to connect metal plates to timber.


COARSE AGGREGATE

Crushed stone of gravel used in reinforced concrete.


COAT

One application of a material e.g. paint, plaster.


COFFER

Sunken panels formed in ceilings,vaults and domes.


COGGED JOINT

A joint having one member notched so as to form a cog and the other member notched to fit over the cog.


COLD AIR DUCT

In heating and ventilation systems, a pipe which carries cold air.


COLD CATHODE LAMP

An electric lamp consisting of a fluorescent glass tube with no filament. Alternating current passing through the vacuum in the tube gives no visible light but emits other radiation, which on passing through the glass is changed into visible light by the fluorescence of the glass.


COLLAR

Refers to the short section of outer piping used to join two lengths of pipe and may also refer to collar flashing fitted to roofing penetrations.


COLLAR TIE

See TIE - collar


COLLECTION LINE

That part of a plumbing system which receives the discharge of all soil and waste stacks within the building and conveys into the sewer.


COLUMN

Free standing vertical load bearing member. See ENGAGED COLUMN


COLUMN FOOTINGS

Concrete footings, reinforced with steel rods, used as supports for columns.


COLUMN SECTIONS

Cross sectional shapes of columns.


COLUMNIATION

Arrangement of columns


COLUMN SECTIONS

Various designs for columns.


COMBINATIONS WITCH AND PLUGSOCKET

A fitting at the terminal of a circuit that has the switch and plug socket combined as an integral unit.


COMBINATION TANK

A sheet copper container for hot water which is combined with a feed tank.


COMBINED EXTRACT AND INPUT SYSTEM

A ventilating system which combines the extract and the input system.


COMBUSTIBLE

That which burns.


COMFORT ZONE

A conception used in the design of air-conditioning systems relating to a zone of comfortable working conditions. This varies from place to place but generally is within the following range: Temperature 22C 3C. Humidity 50 +/- 10/o.


COMMON BOND

In masonry a bond in which every sixth course approximately is a headed course and the intervening courses are stretcher courses.


COMMON BRICK

See BRICKS – common


COMMON RAFTER

See RAFTER – common


COMMONWALL

See PARTYWALL


COMPONENT

Building material formed as a distinct unit for which length, width and thickness dimensions are specified (e.g. bricks, timber).

See LENGTH, THICKNESS, WIDTH)


COMPOSITE BOARD

Plywood containing an insulating of other special purpose sheet such as asbestos of cork. These boards are used for building cold stores, refrigerators, and other structures which require high insulation and may be metal-faced both sides as a vapour barrier.


COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION

Different materials in conjunction (e.g. reinforced concrete in situ topping over a precast prestressed concrete floor beam, or brickwork carried on a concrete or steel beam).


COMPOSITION MORTAR

Mortar made of cement, lime and sand. See also MORTAR.


COMPOUNDBEAM

A built-upbeam or a beam composed of two or more members.


COMPREGNATED WOOD

An assembly of veneer impregnated with liquid resin and bonded under high pressure.


COMPRESSED WOOD

Wood whose density and strength have been increase by pressure (.g. high density plywood).


COMPRESSION FITTINGS

Ring or gasket of rubber on PVC in pipe joints placed in compression between two fittings to maintain a seal.


CONCEALED GUTTER

A gutter which is constructed in such a manner that it cannot be seen.


CONCEALED HEATING

Method of heating a building by the installation of heating units concealed in floors, ceiling, or walls.


CONCENTRATED LOAD

A load applied to a localized part of a structural member.


CONCRETE

Concrete is a conglomerate artificial stone. It is made by mixing in certain proportions cement, water, sand and crushed stone, gravel of other inert material. The chemically active substance in the mixture is the cement which unites physically and chemicallyn with the water and, upon hardening, binds the aggregates together to form a solid mass resembling stone.

Bush hammered: Removal of surface laitance by a mechanical hammer.

No Fines: Concrete composed of coarse aggregate,cement and water (no sand).

Light Weight: See SLAG CONCRETE

Reinforced: Concrete reinforced or strengthened by the inclusion of steel mesh, bars, rods.

Sand Blasted: Removal of surface laitance by a stream of sand applied to the surface at high pressure.


CONCRETE BLOCK

A concrete building block.


CONCRETEBOXING

Metal, fibreglass or timber formwork into which concrete is poured to a predetermined shape.


CONDENSATION

Beads or drops of water which accumulate on the inside of the exterior covering of a building, when warm, moisture-laden air, from the interior, reaches a point (due to cooling) where the temperature no longer permits the air to sustain the moisture it holds.


CONDUCTANCE (C-Value)

The thermal conductance of a building material of a given thickness is the amount of heat in watts which passes through one square metre of it in one hour under a temperature difference of 1C between the two faces. For the conductance the temperatures are measured on the face of the material, for the U-value they are measured in the air beyond it. For this reason, the U-value is always lower than the conductance of the same wall by an amount corresponding to the surface resistance.


CONDUCTIVITY (K value)

The thermal conductivity of a substance is the amount of heat in watts passed through an area of 1 square metre1 metre thick in one hoer under a temperature difference of 1 C between the two sides. For constructional materials as a whole there is a roughly proportional relationship between conductivity and density.

See also U-VALUE, CONDUCTANCE


CONDUCTOR – bare or uninsulated

A conductor not covered with insulating material. See INSULATED.


CONDUIT

Protective casing for materials (e.g. electrical cables).


CONFERENCE ROOMS

Areas within buildings for meetings mainly at executive level. Sound privacy and high speech intelligibility is generally required.


CONICAL LIGHT

A skylight or lantern built up from straight glazing bars and flat panes of glass. It is shaped like a many-sided Pyramid.


CONNECTORS

Split ring-steel circular connectors with toothed or plain edges used in the fabrication of built up timber components such as trusses.

Shear plate-used to connect timber to steel, giving added strength to bolted connection, circular connectors are most common.


CONSTRUCTION


CONSTRUCTION JOINT

Joint which occurs because of the sequence of construction, unlike an expansion joint.


CONSRUCTION KEY


A key used by the contractor to operate locks during construction. The lock mechanism is changed on completion of the work.


CONSUMER'S MAINS

Those cables included in the portion of the electrical circuit between the consumer's terminals and the main switchboard.


CONSUMER'S TERMINALS

The ends of the electrical conductors situated upon any consumer's premises at which the supply of energy is delivered from the service line.


CONTINUOUS

A term applied to a structural member having three or more supports, or extending over two or more panels, e.g. continuous beam.


CONTOUR

The outline revealed by across-section.


CONTOUR LINES

Lines of uniform elevation marked on a map


CONTRACT DOCUMENTS

Working Drawings, Specification and details which form part of the formal contract between the Principal and the Contractor.


CONTRACTOR

One who agrees by written agreement or contract to supply materials and perform certain types of work for a specified sum of money.


CONTROLLING DIMENSION

See DIMENSION, Controlling


CONTROLLING PLANE

See PLANE, Controlling


CONTROLLING ZONE

See ZONE, Controlling


CONVECTION

When a fluid is warmed it expands, its density decreases, and it rises, its place being taken by denser, cooler fluid. This is known as convection of heat and is the reason why air moves about in rooms when there is no draught.


CO-OROINATING DIMENSION

See DIMENSION, Co-ordinating


CO-ORDINATING FACE

See FACE, Co-ordinating


CO-ORDINATING PLANE

See PLANE, Coordinating


CO-ORDINATION - Dimensional

The application of a range of restated dimensions to the sizing of building components and assemblies for their design and fabrication and to the buildings incorporating them. (See ASSEMBLY, COMPONENT

Modular: Dimensional co-ordination using the basic module (100mm), multimodules, sub-modules and a modular reference system. See MODULE, SYSTEM, Reference


COPED JOINT

The seam, or juncture, between moulded pieces in which a portion of one piece is cut away to receive the moulded part of the other piece.


COPING

The capping or covering at the top of a wall.


COPPER GLAZING

In building, a form of glazing in which panes of glass are separated by a copper strip on the edges of which small flanges of copper have later been formed to retain the glass. Also called COPPERLITE GLAZING.


CORBEL

A projection from a wall, either isolated or continuous, usually loadbearing.


CORD – drop

Twisted insulated electric wires connecting a lamp to a ceiling rose.


Flexible: A flexible electric cable no conduct or of which exceeds4.5 mm' in cross-section.


CORE- of a cable

An electrical conductor with its insulation, excluding any protective covering.


CORKBOARD

Granulated cork which has been compressed and baked to form slabs for flooring or insulation.


CROSS BRACE

Any cross piece which diverts, transmits, or resists the pressure of a load.


CROSSLAP

A joint where two pieces of timber cross each other formed by cutting away half the thickness of each piece so that one piece will fit into the other and both pieces will lie on the same plane.


CROSS WALL CONSTRUCTION

Structural system in the form of walls, relieving or releasing leads from external walls.


CUL DE SAC

An access street with a blind end usually in the form of a turning space for vehicles.


CULL

Reject or castout.


CUP JOINT

A socket joint formed between two small pipes in the same line, by opening out the end ozone pipe to receive the tapered end of the other. The joint is then made firm by fitting the space surrounding the lapped ends with molten solder. See 'PIPE, Socketed'.


CURB

A wall plate which carries a dome at the springings.


CURB JOINT

The centre joint of one side of a curb roof. Also called a knuckle joint.


CURB ROOF

See MANSARD ROOF


CURING

Treatment of concrete or cement rendering to facilitate hardening.


CURTAIN WALL


A non-load bearing external wall.


CUSHION HEAD


A capping usually of cast iron to protect the head of a pile which is to be sunk into the ground with a pile driver.


CUT-OUT (Fusible Cut-out)

A device for opening an electric circuit in the event of overloading, by the fusion of a specially designed part.


CYCLE

Displacement or oscillation of sound expressed as unit of frequency hertz (Hz). Normally ear responds to 20-28Hz to 20 KHz.






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