building terms - b


BACK CATCH

Fastened, attached to an outside wall, for catching and holding in an open position a shutter, window blind, or a door.


BACKFILL

To fill with earth, any remaining space after placing concrete, brickwork, timber, pipes, etc. in an excavation.


BACK FILLET

The edge or fillet by which a slightly projecting structural part returns to the face of the wall, eg quoin or architrave.


BACK GROUND NOISE

Also known as ambient noise or the sound intruding into a space.


BACKPUTTYLNG

The application of glazier's putty under glass on which it is bedded.


BAFFLE

A cover, generally of larger dimensions than the opening it conceals, to allow the passage of air or fluids to pass around the edges of the baffle or cover and through the opening.

BAGGING

A masonry process in which thin mortar is applied to the face of the work with some coarse material.


BAKELITE

A moulded synthetic material used for insulating purposes.


BALCON

A platform, enclosed by a railing or balustrade, projecting from the face of either an inside or outside wall of a building (e.g. a gallery in a theatre).


BALK

A large squared timber or beam.


BALL BEARING BUTT

A butt hinge equipped with ball bearings to prevent wearing at the joints and to insure the operation of doors without noise.


BALL CATCH

A spring-controlled metal ball fastening projecting through a smaller hole to engage a striking plate.


BALL COCK (Ball Valve)

A valve actuated by a float and designed to maintain a constant water level in a tank or cistern.


BALUSTER

Small post used to support a hand-rail.


BALUSTRADE

A series of balusters supporting a hand rail.


BAR

The intermediate member of a sash, dividing the glass into smaller squares.

Camber or Arch: A steel bar used to support brickwork over an opening.

Water: Vertical strip set between 2 horizontat materials to prevent water penetration.


BARGE BOARD

The board covering the roof timbers on the gable or skillion end of a roof, fixed parallel to the roof slope.

BASEMENT

A room or rooms or a building, in par tor wholly below ground level.


BASE STRUCTURE

The structure between the level of the lowest floor and the footing.


BAT

A portion, e.g. half or three-quarters of a brick


BATCH MIXER

A mechanical mixer in which one batch is mixed and discharged at a time.


BATTENS


Timber members of small sectional dimensions.

Ceiling: Light members, nailed to ceiling joists, to which the ceiling is fixed.

Roof or Tile Roofing: Timbers fixed to the tops of rafters to which the roof coverings

may be secured.

Tilting or Tilting Fillet: Timber members tied on the top of the rafters at the lower end

to ensure that the eaves tiles are set in the same inclined plane as the remaining tiles.


BATTER

The slope of a wall of buttress built at an inclination to the vertical plane.


BAY WINDOW

A window, of varying shades, projecting outward from the wall of a building, forming a recess in a room.


BEAD

A moulding, generally of small size in cross section.


BEAD – Parting

A thin member, rounded on the outer edge, separating sashes, and sunk into the frame of a double-hung window.

Staff or Stop: Small beads fixed on the inside of a window frame to guide the inner or bottom sash of a double-hung window.


BEAM

A horizontal load-bearing structural member. Cantilever: Projecting beam with one end unsupported.


BEARER

A sub-floor timber supporting the floor joists.


BEARING

That part of any member of a building that rests upon its supports.


BEARING PLATE

A plate placed under a heavily loaded truss, beam, girder, or column to distribute the load so the pressure of its weight will not exceed the bearing strength of the supporting member.


BEARING WALL OR PARTITION

a) A wall which supports the floors and roof in a building.

b) A partition that carries the floor joists and other partitions above it.


BED - Mortar or bedding


BEDMOULD

A moulding usually fixed on the face of a bargeboard under the verge tile, or under a projection, eg a window sil.


BEECHING

A term denoting the treatment to the face of an earth bank - a layer of impervious material to guard against erosion of the face.


BELFRY

A tower in which a bell is hung.


BENCHMARKS

Identification marks or symbols on stone,metal,or other durable matter, permanently fixed in the ground, and from which differences of elevations are measured.


BEND

A short piece of curved pipe to connect two adjacent straight lengths.


BEVEL

Any angle other than a right angle.


BIB COCK - BibTap, Pillar Cock)

Tap used in a high pressure water system with an internal valve to control the flow of water. ln a bib cock, water enters the tap in a horizontal direction. ln a pillar cock water enters the tap vertically upwards.


BIDET

A bathroom fixture used for bathing the lower part of the body.


BILL OF QUANTITIES

Exact quantities and descriptions of work and materials required for a building project measured and compiled by a quantity surveyor from working drawings and specifications and used to provide a uniform basis for competitive tendering by building contractors, or for negotiating the price or variations with a particular building contractor.


BIN

Enclosed space used for the disposition or storage of materials, eg clothes, wood, coal, garbage.


BINDERS

Tensile members used to tie hanging beams to the general framing of a roof. The term is also used to refer to small beams separating floor joists and ceiling joists in a double floor.


BIRD PROOFING

Method by which the structure is secured from entry of birds.


BIRDSMOUTH

A notch cut in a rafter to fit over the wall plate or beam.


BITUMEN

Tar-like,water proof mixture of certain hydrocarbons used in the production of asphalt, roofing felts and damp courses.


BLACKBOARD

Any specially prepared smooth, surface for writing of drawing on with crayon or chalk.


BLANKET INSULATION

A flexible type of lightweight blanket for insulating purposes, supplied in rolls, strips, or panels (eq mineral wool, fiberglass).


BLEACHING

Cleansing or whitening by the use of oxalic acid or some substance with similar properties.


BLEEDING OF WOOD

The exuding of preservative from a treated timber or board.


BLISTERING

A condition produced when paint is forced from a surface in the form of bubbles.


BLOCKING COURSE

A finishing course of stones on top of a cornice, showing above the cornice, and crowning the walls, forming a small architectural attic.


BLOCKS - Terra Cotta

Unglazed lightweight burnt stay blocks of hollow form(internal partition walls).


BLOWING

A condition in which holes appear in finished surfaces, due to air, foreign matter or to retarded slaking of lime. (See FLOATING, SETTING')


BOARD

A piece of sawn timber of a specified size (eg 700x25).


BOARDING

A covering made of boards.


BOARD SHEATHING

A waterproofed, insulating, composition board used as the base for any kind of exterior surface treatment.


BOASTING

Knocking off superfluous stone preparatory to carving.


BOLECTION MOULDING

See MOULD, bolection


BOLSTER


BONDING

The method of laying bricks whereby the overlapping or bond is provided for by arranging the bricks so that in any one coarse there shall be none of the vertical joints directly over the vertical joints in the course next underneath. The type most commonly used in Australia is stretcher bond which comprises bricks placed with their lengths in the direction of the length of the wall.


BONNET


BOOT

A projection from a concrete beam or floor slab to carry the facing brickwork. Also known as a 'shoe', 'ledge', and 'toe'.


BORROWED LIGHT

Glazed screen allowing light from one room to reach another, used particularly to illuminate interior spaces (eg corridors).


BOSSAGE

Stones which are built in roughly dressed,so as to project,and then finish-dressed in position (eg quoins and corbels).


BOSSING

The shaping of malleable metal (eg sheet lead) to make it conform to the surface it is covering.


BOWLED FLOOR

A type of floor which slopes downwards toward the stage or altar, as in a theatre or church.


BOX


BOX BEAM

A hollow beam formed like along box eg box girder).


BOX DRAIN

A drain with a flat top and bottom,and upright sides.


BOX GUTTER

A roof gutter consisting of a horizontal trough of wood construction lined with galvanized iron, tin, of copper to make it watertight.


BRACE

A member, usually a diagonal,which resists lateral loads and/or movements of a structure.


BRACE FRAME

A building framework in which the corner posts are braced to sills and plates.


BRACKET

A strutted framework acting as a support.


BRANCH


The inlet or outlet of a pipe fitting which is set at an angle with the run.


BREAK


Any projection from the general wall surface.


BREAK GROUND

The first work performed when excavation is begun for a building.


BREAKING OF JOINTS

A vertical staggering of joints to prevent a straight line.


BREEZE BLOCKS

Blocks of crushed coke and cement,generally of a size to bond with ordinary brickwork.


BREEZE BRICKS

As above, but the size of standard claybricks.


BRESSUMER

A lintel or beam intended to carry an upper wall or roof.


BRICK(S)

Blocks of material moulded from clay or cement used for building or paving purposes.

Air: Perforated terra cotta or pressed cement bricks used for ventilation.


BRICK

Bullnose: A brick with one end rounded to aquadrant a 'doublebullnose'

has two ends rounded.


Callow: Under-burnt bricks. Also known as 'doughboys'.

Clinker: Over-burnt bricks often deformed or with pieces of other brick attached.

Common: Usually bricks burnt in continuous kilns; used in general work.

Commons, Picked, Selected: The best of ordinary or common. bricks.

Dry-Pressed: Machine-made bricks produced under high pressure in a metal mould.

Extruded: See 'wire-cut'.

Face: Best quality bricks used for face or external work, of for other

special work.

Heeler: Face bricks of normal length and width, with a height of approximately half that of an ordinary brick.

Ordinary: See commons'.

Pressed: See 'dry-pressed'.

Sand-Lime: bricks manufactured from a mixture of sand, lime and water, and cured in autoclaves under steam pressure.

Splay or base: Bricks with one edge beveled or splayed.

Squint: A special type of shaped brick.

Texture: bricks with a patterned face, usually wire-cut prior to burning.

Wire-Cut: brick's cut from an extruded strip of clay by wires attached to a frame.


BRICK CONSTRUCTION

A construction where the external and internal walls are built of brick.


BRICK CORBELING

A brick, load bearing projection from a wall either isolated or continuous.


BRICK-ON-EDGE CONSTRUCTION

Standard bricks laid on edge instead of the normal 'on flat' method.


BRICKPIER

A detached mass of masonry which serves as a support.


BRICK VENEER CONSTRUCTION

A method of construction in which wall framing of timber or metal is enclosed externally by a veneer of brickwork.


BRICKWORK REINFORCEMENT

The method of strengthening brickwork by laying in specified courses various types of reinforcement such as galvanized hoop iron, galvanized wire mesh, steel bars, etc.


BRIDGING

Stiffening members placed between deep floor joists. (See also 'HERRINGBONE STRUTS'.)


BRISE-SOLEIL

A shield from the sun, used in tropical or Mediterranean countries. lt often consists of vertical or horizontal strips which prevent intensity hot, direct sun from entering a room.


BROACH POST

See KINGPOST


BUCKLED

A term applied to a member which has deformed in a direction transverse to the longitudinal dimension and has crumpled, bent or warped.


BUILDLNG BLOCK

Component made from cement, clay, plaster or other materials and used in the construction of partitions and walls.


BUILDING BOARD

A facing to interior walls or ceilings or a background to plaster, made of compressed wood pulp, cane fiber, plaster, aper, etc. Sometimes veneered with plywood (e,g. asbestos cement, asbestos wallboard, chip board, fiber board, plasterboard).


BUILDING BYLAWS

Regulations by which local authorities control building construction. No ne building work of alteration of existing structures may be carried out unless these regulations are observed.


BUILDLNG EQUIPMENT

Services, furniture, and other plant used in the completed building.


BUILDING LINE

The tine, or limit, on a lot beyond which the law forbids the erection of a building.


BUILDING PAPER

Waterproof paper sometimes reinforced with fibres.


BUILDING STONE

Any kind of stone used in the construction of a building (eg. limestone, sandstone, granite, marble).


BUILDING SYSTEM

An arrangement of the building elements to form a connected whole (e.g. loadbearing walls with timber floors and roofs).


8UILDiNG TRADES

All trades which have a part in the construction of a building{e.g. carpentry, masonry, painting, plumbing, electricity, heating).


BUILT-IN

A term for furniture and fittings which are fitted or built-in.


BUILT-UP

A term referring to a structural member made cp of two or more parts fastened together to act as a single unit.


BULKHEAD

A boxlike structure which projects above or below a roof,floor or ceiling.


BULLNOSE

With the end rounded to aquadrant. (See 'brick's, bullnose'.)


BUNCHED CABLES

Cables not separated one from another,e.g. enclosed in as single conduit pipe, of groove of a wood casing.


BUSBAR

A conductor forming a common junction between two or more circuits.


BUSH


A fitting covering the sharp edges at the end of a conduit.


BUSH SAND

Sand containing up to 30% by weight of clay which acts as a plastering agent in mortars.


BUTT-HINGE

see BUTTS','BALL-BEARING BUTT'


BUTT JOINTS

A joint in which the ends of two members ABUT


BUTTRESS


A projecting structure built against a wall to give it greater strength and stability


BUTTS

Hinges in which the wings, of equal size and usually rectangular, are screwed to the edge of a door or casement and to the rebate of the frame, only the knuckle of the hinge usually

projecting.


BYWOOD

A fullness that may develop at the joints when boards are cramped together. (See also 'Cramp'.)




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