building terms - a



ABSORPTION

The amount of water the material will absorb when immersed in water for a stated length of time.


ABSORPTION - Sound

See SOUND ABSORPTION


ABSORPTION TRENCH

A covered trench to dispose the final discharge from a septic tank or sulage system by absorption into the ground.


ABUTMENT

That part of a pigr or wall either end of an arch, beam,of bridge which resists the pressure to a load.


ACCELERATOR

ACCESS

Approach or way in.


ACCESS DOOR

Door which allows access to concealed spaces or equipment.


ACCESSORY

Any device other than a main fitting, that is used as an integral electrical portion of an installation eg as switch, fuse carrier or plug.


ACCORDION DOORS

Folding doors supported by carriers with rollers which run on a track to fold in a manner similar to the bellows of an accordion.


ACOUSTIC

Pertaining to sense of hearing.


ACOUSTICAL FIBRE BUILDING BOARD

Low density fiber board, sometimes perforated to increase its sound absorption.


ACOUSTICAL REDUCTION

See SOUND REDUCTION FACTOR FACTOR


ACOUSTIC BLANKET

Blankets of rock wool, glass fibres, wood fibres, hair-felt installed in or over framing of 25-125 mm thickness used to absorb airborne and low frequency sound, usually covered with a decorative surface.


ACOUSTIC BOARD

A board used on walls and ceiling to reduce noise.


ACOUSTIC CONSTRUCTION

Building method aimed at reducing the sound entering or leaving a room(eg discontinuous construction).


ACOUSTIC DETAILING

Design and construction of finishes to a flow for acoustic efficiency.


ACOUSTIC PLASTER

Soft, sound absorbent material often perforated (eg Cork, insulating fibre board, or plaster) which have very low sound absorption.


ACOUSTICS

The science of sound-attributes of an enclosed space provided by its shape and the materials which define it.


ACTUALDIMENSION

See DIMENSION - Actual.


ADDITION

Any construction or change in a building which increases its cubic contents by increasing its exterior dimensions.


ADHESIVE

A cement; any substance which causes bodies to adhere to one another; a mastic or glue used to hold materials on a smooth under surface.


ADMIXTURES

Materials added to mortar or concrete to achieve particular modifications to the normal properties of the mortar or concrete.


ADOBE

Puddled earth blocks usually reinforced with straw or other fibrous binders. (See also PISE and STABILISED EARTH.)


ABSORPTION

The property of certain substances to condense water vapor without themselves being changed physically or chemically (eg Silica gel).


AERATED CONCRETE

A lightweight cellular material consisting of concrete containing gas bubbles and possessing sound absorptive and insulating properties.


AERIAL CONDUCTOR

Out door electrical conductor supported by insulators above the ground without mechanical protection.


AGGREGATE

The crushed stone or alternative substance contained in concrete.


AGREEMENT

A contract between two or more parties, either written or verbal.


AIRBORNE SOUND

Transmission of sound energy by production of sound waves from its source.


AIR BRICK

A hollow or perforated brick specially prepared for ventilating purposes.


AIR CONDITIONING

The process of heating, cooling, cleaning, humidifying or dehumidifying, and circulating air throughout various rooms to achieve desired conditions.


AIR CONDITIONING NOISE

Noise created by moving air or mechanical equipment producing air movement, which should be 5-15db below background noise and may be used to mask intruding unwanted noise.


AIRCURTAIN

A vertical flow of air separating differing functions of a building.


AIRCRAFT NOISE

Transmission of aircraft sounds through atmosphere to earth. Discomfort varies with type of noise which operates over a wide frequency range.


AIR DRIED

A term used when referring to timber which has been dried or seasoned by exposure to the atmosphere without artificial heat.


AIRDUCT

An air passage, usually formed in sheet metal, for ventilating a building or space.


AIR EXHAUST



A small duct built to withdraw used air from a room.


AIR FILM RESISTANCE (R VALUE)

In the thermal insulating of a building the air film resistance is the number of hours required to transfer 1 watt from the surrounding air to 1 square metre of surface (or vice versa) through the air film next to the surface when the temperature or the difference between the film and the surface is 1degree C. This is the resistance of the air film on the surface and is not directly related to the thermal resistance of the material.


AIR GRATING

A perforated metal plate or grill across an air duct where it enters a room.


AIRLOCK


AIRSPACE

A cavity or space in walls or between various structural members.


AIR-TO-AIR RESISTANCE

The resistance (R) to the passage of heat provided by the wall of a building, the reciprocal of the air-to-air heat transmission coefficient:

R = 1/U in hours.


AIR-TO-AIR TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENT

The U-value – see U VALUE.


ALCOVE

Any recess in a room.


ALIVE

See LIVE.


ALLOTMENT – block

A building site.


ALSYNITE


ALUMINIUM FOIL

A metallic insulation consisting of thin sheets of aluminum which is mounted on another material, providing the insulation by reflecting back heat.


AMPERE

The basic unit of quantity electric current.


ANCHORS

Devices used to give stability to one part of a structure by securing it to another part or to a separate structure which is capable of resisting the additional load or to a suitable anchorage in the ground. .


ANGLE - Salient

A projecting angle or corner.


ANT CAPPING

Sheetmetal shields, usually of galvanised iron, whose purpose is to delay and expose the passage of termites (white ants) from the soil to the timber portions of a building by covering the top of walls, each pier or stump supporting timber floors with metal which extends on all open sides and is turned down at 45.


ANTl-VIBRATION MOUNTS

Mountings of resilient material used to prevent transmission of equipment noises to the structure. Also known as inertia mounts.


APERTURE

An opening left in a wall for a door, window or for ventilating purposes.


APEX

The highest point of a gable


APPLIANCE – electrical

A device other than a lamp in which electrical energy is converted to the usage for which the appliance is intended.


APRON FLASHING

Is the flashing which forms a horizontal apron over roofing and reduces the effect of wind pressure to the stop ends of the roofing material. This flashing is turned up under the overflashing.


ARCADE


ARCH

A structure of wedged shaped joints, over an opening so disposed as to hold together when supported from the sides of, and capable of carrying a load over the opening.


ARCHITECT

A person who is qualified to design buildings and supervise their construction.


ARCHITECTURE

Art and science of building.


ARCHITRAVE

A moulding surrounding a door or window opening.


AREA

The measure of a plane surface within defined boundaries, eg land, buildings.


AREA – gross site

The superficial area on the plan, including half the area of the perimeter roads.


AREA - net Site

The area within the perimeter boundary.


AREA

(Standard method of measurement of building areas by NPWC). See also Storeys, Wall floor Area Ratio, Percentage Efficiency 'Net building Cost'. 'Net Building Rate'.

Net building Area (NBA): Comprises the sum of the Fully Enclosed Covered Area and 50/o of the Unenclosed Covered Area as defined (see below). The quoted percentage may be varied in exceptional circumstances. Unit of measurement: Square Metres (m2).

Fully Enclosed Covered Area (FECA): The Fully Enclosed Covered Area comprises the sum of all such areas at all building floor levels, including basements (except unexcavated portions), floored roof spaces and attics, garages, penthouses, enclosed porches and attached enclosed covered ways alongside buildings, equipment rooms and any other fully enclosed spaces and usable areas of the building computed by measuring from the normal inside face of exterior walls, but excluding any projections such as plinths, columns, piers and the like, which extend beyond the normal inside face of exterior walls. It shall not include open courts, lightwells, connecting or isolated covered ways and net open areas of upper portions of rooms, lobbies, halls and the like which extend though the storey being computed. Unit of Measurement: Square Metres (m2).


AREA – Unenclosed Covered area (UCA)

Comprises the sum of all such areas at all building floor levels, including roofed balconies, open verandahs or attached open covered ways alongside buildings, undercrofts and usable space under buildings, unenclosed access galleries (including ground floor), any other trafficable covered areas of the building which are not totally enclosed by full height walls, computed by measuring from the normal inside face of any enclosing walls, balustrades or supports. It shall not include connecting or isolated covered ways. Unit of measurement: square metres (m2).


Gross building area (GBA): Comprises the sum of the fully enclosed covered area and the unenclosed covered area as defined but computed by measuring from the normal ouside face of exterior walls.

Usable floor area (UFA): Comprises the sum of the floor areas measured at floor level from the general inside face of walls of all interior spaces related to the primary function of the building. This will normally be computed by calculating the Fully Enclosed Covered Area as defined and deducting all of the following areas not related to the primary function of the building:

All floored areas in the building for circulation and standard facilities provided for the common use of occupiers, tenants and/or the public such as lobbies and foyers to entrances, stairways and lifts, stairway landings and fire escapes, verandahs and balconies, corridors and passages, toilet and rest room areas, cloak and locker areas, cleaners' rooms and stores and cupboards, tea making and similar amenities areas.

All areas set aside for building plant supplying services and facilities common to the building for the use of occupants, tenants and or public, such as mechanical plant and equipment rooms, electrical equipment and switchrooms, tank rooms, lift motor rooms, meter cupboards, telecommunication switchrooms, refuse collection areas, loading bays and car parks and access ways thereto.

All nonhabitable building space such as that occupied by internal columns and other structural supports, internal walls and permanent partitions, lift shafts, service ducts and the like.

Unit of Measurement: Square Metres (m2).

Net Rentable Area (NRA): The Net Rentable Area of commercial type buildings comprises the sum of al rentable areas within the building measured in accordance with the recommended guide for measurements of buildings issued by the Property Council of Australia.


AREA - Unroofed

The sum of the superficial areas of all unroofed paved areas contiguous to a building, such as terraces, and patios.


AREA – Useful

The sum of the living, sleeping, ablution and utility areas


ARRIS

A sharp edge formed by any two surfaces meeting at an angle.


ASBESTOS

A mineral fibre which is a poor conductor of heat and can withstand high temperatures. Modern asbestos does not contain the mineral asbestos.


ASBESTOSCEMENT

See FIBRO-CEMENT


ASBESTOS CURTAIN

A curtain of asbestos and other fire-resisting materials; designed to close the proscenium opening of a theatre stage, in case of fire.


ASHLAR

Square hewn stone.


ASHLARING

The studs of uprights between floor beams and rafters in an attic.


ASPHALT

A mineral pitch insoluble in water and use a for roof coverings, in paints, paving and water proofing.


ASSEMBLY

An aggregate of building components used together. Elements are generally comprise of assemblies (e.g. door, window). (See COMPONENT, ELEMENT.)


ASTRAGAL

Type of moulding used mainly in joinery.


ATRIUM

Large hallway or lobby with galleries at each floor level on three or more sides.


ATTENUATION


Sound stopping capacity of building materials.

ATTIC


A room or rooms buitt into the roof of a building with stair access from the floor below.


AUDITORIUM

Portion of a public building assigned to the audience.


AWNING SASH

A window sash which moves outwards from the bottom.


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